Ans. Periyar was an outspoken critic of Hindu scriptures, especially the Codes of Manu, the ancient lawgiver, and the Bhagavad Gita and the Ramayana.
Ans. In this popular festival, devotees underwent a peculiar form of suffering as part of ritual worship. With hooks pierced through their skin they swung themselves on a wheel.
Ans. Tarabai Shinde, a woman educated at home at Poona, published a book, Stripurushtulna, (A Comparison between Women and Men), criticizing the social differences between men and women.
Ans. He left it in disgust when he found that at a feast organised by nationalists, seating arrangements followed caste distinctions – that is, the lower castes were made to sit at a distance from the upper castes.
Ans. Pandita Ramabai founded a widows’ home at Poona to provide shelter to widows who had been treated badly by their husbands’ relatives. Here women were trained so that they could support themselves economically.
Ans. Christian missionaries set up schools for tribal groups and “lower”-caste children. These children were thus equipped with some resources to make their way into a changing world.
Ans. In some parts of the country, widows were praised if they chose death by burning themselves on the funeral pyre of their husbands. Women who died in this manner, whether willingly or otherwise, were called “sati”, meaning virtuous women.
Ans. In 1927, Ambedkar started a temple entry movement, in which his Mahar caste followers participated. Brahman priests were outraged when the Dalits used water from the temple tank. Ambedkar led three such movements for temple entry between 1927 and 1935. His aim was to make everyone see the power of caste prejudices within society.
Ans. Whenever reformers wished to challenge a practice that seemed harmful, they tried to find a verse or sentence in the ancient sacred texts that supported their point of view. They then suggested that the practice as it existed at present was against early tradition. Thus, the knowledge of ancient texts helped the reformers promote new laws.
Ans. Ambedkar was born into a Mahar family. In 1927, Ambedkar started a temple entry movement, in which his Mahar caste followers participated. Brahman priests were outraged when the Dalits used water from the temple tank. Ambedkar led three such movements for temple entry between 1927 and 1935. His aim was to make everyone see the power of caste prejudices within society.
Rammohun Roy – Ban on Sati
Dayanand Saraswati - Widow Remarriage
Veerasalingam Pantulu - Widow Remarriage
Jyotirao Phule - Caste Equality
Pandita Ramabai - Equality and Freedom for Women
Periyar – Equality for Untouchables
Mumtaz Ali - Women’s Education
Ishwarchandra Vidyasagar - Widow Remarriage
Ans. The following were the reasons people had for not sending girls to school.
i. They feared that schools would take girls away from home, prevent them from doing their domestic duties.
ii. Moreover, girls had to travel through public places in order to reach school.
iii. Many people felt that this would have a corrupting influence on them.
iv. They felt that girls should stay away from public spaces.
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