Caste and Reform
Q16. Name the Hindu scriptures which were criticized by Periyar.
was an outspoken critic of Hindu scriptures, especially the Codes of Manu, the
ancient lawgiver, and the Bhagavad Gita and the Ramayana.
Q17. What is Hook swinging festival?
Ans. In this
popular festival, devotees underwent a peculiar form of suffering as part of
ritual worship. With hooks pierced through their skin they swung themselves on a
Q18. Who published the book named Stripurushtulna? What is it
Ans. Tarabai Shinde, a woman educated at home at
Poona, published a book, Stripurushtulna, (A Comparison between Women and Men),
criticizing the social differences between men and women.
Q19. Why did E.V. Ramaswamy Naicker leave the congress?
Ans. He left it
in disgust when he found that at a feast organised by nationalists, seating
arrangements followed caste distinctions – that is, the lower castes were made
to sit at a distance from the upper castes.
did widow's home at Poona help the widows?
How was widow's home at Poona helpful?
Ramabai founded a widows’ home at Poona to provide shelter to widows who had
been treated badly by their husbands’ relatives. Here women were trained so
that they could support themselves economically.
Q21. What was the contribution of the Christian missionaries in
spreading education among the tribal group and the lower caste?
missionaries set up schools for tribal groups and “lower”-caste children. These
children were thus equipped with some resources to make their way into a
Q22. What do you mean by ‘sati’?
Ans. In some parts of the country, widows were praised
if they chose death by burning themselves on the funeral pyre of their husbands.
Women who died in this manner, whether willingly or otherwise, were called
“sati”, meaning virtuous women.
Q23. What did Ambedkar want to achieve through the temple entry
Ans. In 1927, Ambedkar started a temple entry movement,
in which his Mahar caste followers participated. Brahman priests were outraged
when the Dalits used water from the temple tank. Ambedkar led three such
movements for temple entry between 1927 and 1935. His aim was to make everyone
see the power of caste prejudices within society.
Q24. How did the knowledge of ancient texts help the reformers
promote new laws?
Ans. Whenever reformers wished to challenge a practice
that seemed harmful, they tried to find a verse or sentence in the ancient
sacred texts that supported their point of view. They then suggested that the
practice as it existed at present was against early tradition. Thus, the
knowledge of ancient texts helped the reformers promote new laws.
Q25. Write a short note on Ambedkar?
was born into a Mahar family. In 1927, Ambedkar started a temple
entry movement, in which his Mahar caste followers participated. Brahman
priests were outraged when the Dalits used water from the temple tank. Ambedkar
led three such movements for temple entry between 1927 and 1935. His aim was to
make everyone see the power of caste prejudices within society.
Q26. What social ideas did the following people support?
Rammohun Roy – Ban on Sati
Dayanand Saraswati - Widow Remarriage
Veerasalingam Pantulu - Widow Remarriage
Jyotirao Phule - Caste Equality
Pandita Ramabai - Equality and Freedom for Women
Periyar – Equality for Untouchables
Mumtaz Ali - Women’s Education
Ishwarchandra Vidyasagar - Widow Remarriage
Q27. What were the different reasons people had for not sending
girls to school?
Ans. The following were the reasons people had for not
sending girls to school.
They feared that schools would take girls
away from home, prevent them from doing their domestic duties.
Moreover, girls had to travel through
public places in order to reach school.
Many people felt that this would have a
corrupting influence on them.
They felt that girls should stay away from