and the City
The Story of an
Q32. Why did the British choose to hold a grand Durbar in Delhi although
it was not the capital?
Ans. During the Revolt, the British had realised that
the Mughal emperor was still important to the people and they saw him as their
leader. It was therefore important to celebrate British power with pomp and
show in the city the Mughal emperors had earlier ruled, and the place which had
turned into a rebel stronghold in 1857.
Q33. What were the conditions of the city drains of Shahjanabad
at the end of the nineteenth century?
Ans. At the end of the nineteenth century, the
Shahjahani drains were closed and a new system of open surface drains was introduced.
This system too was soon overburdened, and many of the wealthier inhabitants
complained about the stench from roadside privies and overflowing open drains.
The Delhi Municipal Committee was unwilling to spend money on a good drainage
Q34. Write a short note on havelis.
Ans. The Mughal aristocracy in the seventeenth and eighteenth
centuries lived in grand mansions called havelis. A haveli housed many
families. On entering the haveli through a beautiful gateway, you reached an open
courtyard, surrounded by public rooms meant for visitors and business, used
exclusively by males. The inner courtyard with its pavilions and rooms was
meant for the women of the household. Rooms in the havelis had multiple uses,
and very little by way of furniture.
Q35. Before 1857, developments in Delhi were somewhat different
from those in other colonial cities. How?
Ans. Before 1857, developments in Delhi were somewhat different
from those in other colonial cities. In Madras, Bombay or Calcutta, the living
spaces of Indians and the British were sharply separated. Indians lived in
“black” areas, while the British lived in well-laid out “white” areas. In Delhi,
especially in the first half of the nineteenth century, the British lived along
with the wealthier Indians in the Walled City. The British learned to enjoy
Urdu/Persian culture and poetry and participated in local festivals.
Q36. What happened to Delhi after 1857?
How was Delhi after 1857?
Ans. During the Revolt of 1857, the rebels gathered in
the city, and persuaded Bahadur Shah to become the leader of the uprising.
Delhi remained under rebel control for four months. When
the British regained the city, they embarked on a campaign of revenge and
plunder. To prevent another rebellion, the British exiled Bahadur Shah to Burma
(now Myanmar), dismantled his court, razed several of the palaces, closed down
gardens and built barracks for troops in their place.
Q37. Write a short note on Lahore Gate Improvement Scheme.
Ans. In 1888 an extension scheme called the Lahore
Gate Improvement Scheme was planned by Robert Clarke for the Walled City
residents. The idea was to draw residents away from the Old City to a new type
of market square, around which shops would be built. Streets in this
redevelopment strictly followed the grid pattern, and were of identical width,
size and character. Land was divided into regular areas for the construction of
neighbourhoods. Clarkegunj, as the development was called, remained incomplete
and did not help to decongest the Old City.
Q38. What happened to small cities under colonial rule?
Discuss briefly the causes of decline of the small cities during
the British rule.
Ans. A host of smaller cities declined.
Many towns manufacturing specialized goods
declined due to a drop in the demand for what they produced.
Old trading centres and ports could not
survive when the flow of trade moved to new centres.
Similarly, earlier centres of regional
power collapsed when local rulers were defeated by the British and new centres
of administration emerged.
Q39. What is meant by de-urbanisation?
Ans. In the late eighteenth century, Calcutta, Bombay and
Madras rose in importance as Presidency cities. They became the centres of
British power in the different regions of India. At the same time, a host of
smaller cities declined. Many towns manufacturing specialized goods declined
due to a drop in the demand for what they produced. Old trading centres and
ports could not survive when the flow of trade moved to new centres. Similarly,
earlier centres of regional power collapsed when local rulers were defeated by
the British and new centres of administration emerged. This process is often
described as de-urbanisation.