1857 and After
Q45. How did other Indian soldiers in Meerut participate in the
revolt of 1857?
The response of the other Indian soldiers in Meerut was quite extraordinary. On
10 May, the soldiers marched to the jail in Meerut and released the imprisoned
sepoys. They attacked and killed British officers. They captured guns and ammunition
and set fire to the buildings and properties of the British and declared war on
Q46. How did the British succeed in securing the submission of
the rebel landowners of Awadh?
Ans. The British also tried their best to win back the
loyalty of the people. They announced rewards for loyal landholders would be
allowed to continue to enjoy traditional rights over their lands. Those who had
rebelled were told that if they submitted to the British, and if they had not
killed any white people, they would remain safe and their rights and
claims to land would not be denied.
Q47. What did the British do to suppress the revolt of 1857?
How did the Company suppress the revolt?
Ans. The Company decided to repress the revolt with
all its might. It brought reinforcements from England, passed
new laws so that the rebels could be convicted with ease, and then moved into
the storm centres of the revolt. Delhi was recaptured from the rebel forces in
September 1857. Lucknow was taken in March 1858. Rani
Lakshmibai was defeated and killed in June 1858. Tantia Tope was
captured, tried and killed in April 1859.
Q48. Who was Subedar Sitaram Pande?
Write a short note on Subedar Sitaram Pande.
Sitaram Pande was recruited in 1812 as a sepoy in the Bengal Native Army. He
served the English for 48 years and retired in 1860. He helped the British to
suppress the rebellion though his own son was a rebel and was killed by the
British in front of his eyes. On retirement he was persuaded by his Commanding
Officer, Norgate, to write his memoirs. He completed the writing in 1861 in
Awadhi and Norgate translated it into English and had it published under the
title From Sepoy to Subedar.
Q49. What were the main provisions of the Act of 1858?
Ans. Main provisions of the Act of 1858 were:
Powers of the East India Company were
transferred to the British Crown in order to ensure a more responsible
management of Indian affairs.
A member of the British Cabinet was
appointed Secretary of State for India and made responsible for all matters
related to the governance of India.
The Governor-General of India was given the
title of Viceroy, that is, a personal representative of the Crown.
Q50. Why were the Indian sepoys unhappy with the British rule?
Why did the Indian soldiers get angry at the British?
Ans. They were unhappy about their pay, allowances and
conditions of service. Some of the new rules violated their religious sensibilities
and beliefs. Those were the days many people in the country believed
that if they crossed the sea they would lose their religion and caste. So when
in 1824 the sepoys were told to go to Burma by the sea route to fight for the
Company, they refused to follow the order, though they agreed to go by the land
route. They were severely punished, and since the issue did not die down, in
1856 the Company passed a new law which stated that every new person who took
up employment in the Company’s army had to agree to serve overseas if required.
Q51. How did British plan to bring Mughal dynasty to an end?
Ans. The Company even began to plan how to bring the Mughal
dynasty to an end.
The name of the Mughal king was removed
from the coins minted by the Company.
In 1849, Governor-General Dalhousie
announced that after the death of Bahadur Shah Zafar, the family of the king would
be shifted out of the Red Fort and given another place in Delhi to reside in.
In 1856, Governor-General Canning decided
that Bahadur Shah Zafar would be the last Mughal king and after his death none
of his descendants would be recognized as kings – they would just be called