Topic outline

    • Tribals, Dikus and the Vision of a Golden Age

      Q1. Fill in the blanks.

                                 i.        The British described the tribal people as wild and savage.

                                ii.        The method of sowing seeds in jhum cultivation is known as broadcasting.

                               iii.        The tribal chiefs got land titles in central India under the British land settlements.

                                iv.        Tribals went to work in the tea plantations of Assam and the coal mines in Bihar.

                                 v.        The Khonds were a community living in the forests of Orissa.

                                vi.        The Gaddis of Kulu were shepherds.

                vii.        The lives of tribal people depended on free movement within forests.

                viii.        The British wanted tribal groups to settle down and become peasant cultivators.

                                ix.        Mahua is a flower that is eaten or used to make alcohol.

                                 x.        Shifting cultivators were found in the hilly and forested tracts of north-east and central India.

                                xi.        Among the followers of Birsa were the tribals of Santhals and Oraons tribes.

                 xii.        In the1930s Verrier Elwin visited the land of the Baigas – a tribal group in central India.

                 xiii.        In the eighteenth century, Indian silk was in demand in European markets.

      Q2. True/False

                                    i.        By the nineteenth century, tribal people in different parts of India were involved in a variety of activities. True

                                   ii.        All members of the clan were regarded as descendants of the original settlers, who had first cleared the land. True

                                  iii.        Jhum cultivators plough the land and sow seeds. False

                                  iv.        Cocoons were bought from the Santhals and sold by the traders at five times the purchase price. True

                                   v.        Birsa urged his followers to purify themselves, give up drinking liquor and stop believing in witchcraft and sorcery. True

                                 vi.        The British wanted to preserve the tribal way of life. False

                 vii.        Kusum and palash flowers were used to colour clothes and leather. True

                 viii.        Many tribal groups saw the market and the traders as their main enemies. True

      Q3. Name the tribe of ‘Birsa’.

      Ans. Munda


      Q4. Who were Mundas?

      Ans. Mundas was a tribal group that lived in Chottanagpur.


      Q5. Birsa belonged to which village and state?

      Ans. Birsa belonged to village of Chottanagpur in Bihar.


      Q6. When and where revolt of Songram Sangma took place?

      Ans. The revolt of Songram Sangma took place in 1906 in Assam.


      Q7. Name the place where Khond people used to live?

      Ans. Khond people used to live in the forests of Orissa.


      Q8. Why did the British reserve the forests of India?

      Ans. British reserved the forests of India to procure timber.

      Q9. What does Vaishnav mean?

      Ans. Vaishnav means worshippers of Vishnu.


      Q10. When did Birsa Munda died and how?

      Ans. In 1900 Birsa died of cholera.


      Q11. What is the other name of jhum cultivation?

      Ans. The other name of Jhum cultivation is shifting cultivation.


      Q12. When and where was the forest satyagraha happened?

      Ans. The forest satyagraha happened in 1930s in the Central Provinces.


      Q13. It was below the dignity of which tribe to become a labourer?

      Ans. It was below the dignity of a Baiga to become a labourer.


      Q14. What was the color of the flag raised by Mundas as a symbol of Birsa Raj?

      Ans. They raised the white flag as a symbol of Birsa Raj.

      Q15. Name the leaves used for making plates by the Dongria Kandha women of Orissa.

      Ans. Pandanus leaves


      Q16. In which area the Santhals reared cocoons?

      Ans. Hazaribagh, in present-day Jharkhand, was an area where the Santhals reared cocoons.


      Q17. What is fallow field?

      Ans. Fallow field is a field left uncultivated for a while so that the soil recovers fertility.


      Q18. Why did the British introduce land settlement?

      Ans. The British introduced land settlement because they wanted a regular revenue source for the state.