Q34. What were the consequences of the economic crisis that
State the consequences of the economic crisis that gripped
Ans. Consequences of the economic crisis that
Artisans were deserting villages since they
were being forced to sell their goods to the Company at low prices.
Peasants were unable to pay the dues that
were being demanded from them.
Artisanal production was in decline, and
agricultural cultivation showed signs of collapse.
Then in 1770 a terrible famine killed ten
million people in Bengal. About one-third of the population was wiped out.
Q35. What was the “Blue Rebellion”?
Ans. In March 1859 thousands of ryots in Bengal
refused to grow indigo. This was known as the 'Blue rebellion'.
the rebellion spread, ryots refused to pay rents to the planters, and attacked
indigo factories armed with swords and spears, bows and arrows. Women turned up
to fight with pots, pans and kitchen implements. Those who worked for the
planters were socially boycotted, and the gomasthas – agents of planters – who
came to collect rent were beaten up. Ryots swore they would no longer take
advances to sow indigo nor be bullied by the planters’ lathiyals.
Q36. How was the Mahalwari System different from the Permanent
1. Mahalwari system, devised by Holt
Mackenzie came into effect in 1822, in the North Western
Provinces of the Bengal Presidency.
1. Lord Cornwallis introduced the Permanent
Settlement in 1793.
2. The amount to be paid was to be revised
periodically, not permanently fixed.
2. The amount to be paid was fixed
permanently, that is, it was not to be increased ever in future.
3. The charge of collecting the revenue
and paying it to the Company was given to the village headman.
3. The charge of collecting the revenue
and paying it to the Company was given to the zamindar.
Q37. What was the Munro system?
What was Ryotwari system?
What are the main aspects of Ryotwari system?
Describe the Munro system.
Ans. The new system that was devised came to be known
as the ryotwar (or ryotwari). It was tried on a small scale by Captain
Alexander Read in some of the areas that were taken over by the Company after
the wars with Tipu Sultan. Subsequently developed by Thomas Munro, this system
was gradually extended all over south India. Read and Munro felt that in the
south there were no traditional zamindars. The settlement, they argued, had to
be made directly with the cultivators (ryots) who had tilled the land for generations.
Their fields had to be carefully and separately surveyed before the revenue assessment
Q38. How was indigo cultivated under the ryoti system?
Ans. Under the ryoti system, the planters forced the
ryots to sign a contract, an agreement (satta). At times they pressurised the
village headmen to sign the contract on behalf of the ryots. Those who signed
the contract got cash advances from the planters at low rates of interest to
produce indigo. But the loan committed the ryot to cultivating indigo on at
least 25 per cent of the area under his holding. The planter provided the seed
and the drill, while the cultivators prepared the soil, sowed the seed and
looked after the crop. When the crop was delivered to the planter
after the harvest, a new loan was given to the ryot, and the cycle started all
Q39. Give a brief description of the Mahalwari System.
Brief notes on the Mahalwari System.
Describe mahalwari system.
Ans. In the North Western Provinces of the Bengal Presidency,
an Englishman called Holt Mackenzie devised the new system which came into
effect in 1822. He felt that the village was an important social institution in
north Indian society and needed to be preserved. Under his directions,
collectors went from village to village, inspecting the land, measuring the
fields, and recording the customs and rights of different groups. The estimated
revenue of each plot within a village was added up to calculate the revenue
that each village (mahal) had to pay. This demand was to be revised
periodically, not permanently fixed. The charge of collecting the revenue and
paying it to the Company was given to the village headman. This system came to
be known as the mahalwari settlement.