Topic outline

    • Land, Soil, Water, Natural Vegetation and Wildlife Resources

      Q61. “Vegetation and wildlife are valuable resources.” Comment

      Ans. Vegetation and wildlife are valuable resources.

                                i.        Plants provide us with timber, give shelter to animals, produce oxygen we breathe, protects soils so essential for growing crops, act as shelter belts, help in storage of underground water, give us fruits, nuts, latex, turpentine oil, gum, medicinal plants and paper.

                               ii.        Wildlife includes animals, birds, insects as well as the aquatic life forms. They provide us milk, meat, hides and wool. Insects like bees provide us honey, help in pollination of flowers and have an important role to play as decomposers in the ecosystem. The birds feed on insects and act as decomposers as well. Vulture due to its ability to feed on dead livestock is a scavenger and considered a vital cleanser of the environment.

      Q62. What are the threats to natural vegetation and wildlife?

      Ans. Threats to natural vegetation and wildlife are:

                                i.        Changes of climate and human interferences can cause the loss of natural habitats for the plants and animals. Many species have become vulnerable or endangered and some are on the verge of extinction.

                              ii.        Deforestation, soil erosion, constructional activities, forest fires, tsunami and landslides are some of the human made and natural factors which together accelerate the process of extinction of these great natural resources.

                             iii.        One of the major concerns is the increasing incidents of poaching that result in a sharp decline in the number of particular species.

      Q63. Suggest some methods of soil conservation.

      Ans. Some methods of soil conservation are

      Mulching: The bare ground between plants is covered with a layer of organic matter like straw. It helps to retain soil moisture.

      Contour barriers: Stones, grass, soil are used to build barriers along contours. Trenches are made in front of the barriers to collect water.

      Rock dam: Rocks are piled up to slow down the flow of water. This prevents gullies and further soil loss.

      Terrace farming: These are made on the steep slopes so that flat surfaces are available to grow crops. They can reduce surface run-off and soil erosion.

      Intercropping: Different crops are grown in alternate rows and are sown at different times to protect the soil from rain wash.

      Contour ploughing: Ploughing parallel to the contours of a hill slope to form a natural barrier for water to flow down the slope.

      Shelter belts: In the coastal and dry regions, rows of trees are planted to check the wind movement to protect soil cover.