Q55. Distinguish between subsistence farming and intensive
between subsistence farming and intensive farming
type of farming is practised to meet the needs of the farmer’s family.
Traditionally, low levels of technology and household labour are used to
produce on small output.
intensive subsistence agriculture the farmer cultivates a small plot of land
using simple tools and more labour.
Q56. What is plantation agriculture?
are a type of commercial farming where single crop of tea, coffee, sugarcane,
cashew, rubber, banana or cotton are grown. Large amount of labour and capital
are required. The produce may be processed on the farm itself or in nearby factories.
The development of a transport network is thus essential for such farming.
Q57. By what names is shifting cultivation known in different
regions of the world?
Ans. Shifting cultivation is known by different names
in different parts of the world.
- North-East India
Q58. Distinguish between primary
activities and tertiary activities.
between primary activities and tertiary activities
Primary activities include all those connected with extraction and production
of natural resources.
Tertiary activities provide support to the primary and secondary sectors
Example: Agriculture, fishing and gathering
Example: Transport, trade,
insurance and advertising
Q59. What is commercial farming? Mention its major features.
Ans. In commercial farming crops are grown and animals
are reared for sale in market.
of commercial farming
The area cultivated and the amount of
capital used is large.
Most of the work is done by machines.
Commercial farming includes commercial
grain farming, mixed farming and plantation agriculture.
Q60. Name the fibre crops and the climatic conditions required
for their growth.
Ans. Jute and
cotton are fibre crops. Climatic conditions required for their growth are:
Cotton requires high temperature, light rainfall, two hundred and ten
frost-free days and bright sunshine for its growth. It grows best on black and
It grows well on alluvial soil and requires high temperature, heavy rainfall
and humid climate.
Q61. What is shifting cultivation? What are its disadvantages?
Ans. Shifting cultivation is a type of agriculture in
which a plot of land is cleared by felling the trees and burning them. The
ashes are then mixed with the soil and crops like maize, yam, potatoes and
cassava are grown. After the soil loses its fertility, the land is abandoned
and the cultivator moves to a new plot. Shifting cultivation is also known as
‘slash and burn’ agriculture.
is disadvantageous because it involves deforestation and burning of trees. Thus
it is not good for environment.
Q62. What are the types of commercial farming?
Ans. Commercial farming includes commercial grain
farming, mixed farming and plantation agriculture.
In commercial grain farming crops are grown
for commercial purpose. Wheat and maize are common commercially grown grains.
Major areas where commercial grain farming is pracised are temperate grasslands
of North America, Europe and Asia.
In mixed farming the land is used for
growing food and fodder crops and rearing livestock. It
is practised in Europe, eastern USA, Argentina, southeast Australia, New
Zealand and South Africa.
Plantations are a type of commercial
farming where single crop of tea, coffee, sugarcane, cashew, rubber, banana or
cotton are grown. Large amount of labour and capital are required. Major
plantations are found in the tropical regions of the world.
Q63. What are the types of subsistence farming?
Ans. Subsistence farming can be further classified as
intensive subsistence and primitive subsistence farming.
subsistence agriculture - In intensive subsistence
agriculture the farmer cultivates a small plot of land using simple tools and more
is the main crop. Other crops include wheat, maize, pulses and oilseeds.
Intensive subsistence agriculture is prevalent in the thickly populated areas
of the monsoon regions of south, southeast and east Asia.
subsistence agriculture – It includes shifting cultivation
and nomadic herding.
Shifting cultivation is practised in the
thickly forested areas of Amazon basin, tropical Africa, parts of Southeast
Asia and Northeast India. A plot of land is cleared by felling
the trees and burning them. The ashes are then mixed with the soil and crops like
maize, yam, potatoes and cassava are grown. After the soil loses its fertility,
the land is abandoned and the cultivator moves to a new plot.
Nomadic herding is practised in the
semi-arid and arid regions of Sahara, Central Asia and some parts of India,
like Rajasthan and Jammu and Kashmir. In this type of farming, herdsmen move
from place to place with their animals for fodder and water, along defined