Topic outline

    • Agriculture

      Q41. What are secondary activities?

      Ans. Secondary activities are concerned with the processing of natural resources. Example: manufacturing of steel, baking of bread and weaving of cloth etc.


      Q42. What are the climatic conditions required for growing cotton?

      Ans. Cotton requires high temperature, light rainfall, two hundred and ten frost-free days and bright sunshine for its growth. It grows best on black and alluvial soils.


      Q43. What weather conditions are required for wheat?

      Ans. Wheat requires moderate temperature and rainfall during growing season and bright sunshine at the time of harvest. It thrives best in well drained loamy soil.

      Q44. When does food security exist?

      Ans. Food security exists when all people, at all times, have access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life.


      Q45. Where is shifting cultivation practised?

      Ans. Shifting cultivation is practised in the thickly forested areas of Amazon basin, tropical Africa, parts of southeast Asia and Northeast India. These are the areas of heavy rainfall and quick regeneration of vegetation.


      Q46. Which type of farming is also known as 'slash and burn' agriculture? Why?

      Ans.  Shifting cultivation is also known as ‘slash and burn’ agriculture. It is called 'slash and burn' agriculture because in this type of agriculture land is cleared by felling the trees and burning them.

      Q47. What are the climatic conditions required for growing coffee? Who are the leading producers of coffee?

      Ans. Coffee requires warm and wet climate and well drained loamy soil. Hill slopes are more suitable for growth of this crop. Brazil is the leading producer followed by Columbia and India.


      Q48. What are the climatic conditions required for growing maize? Where maize is grown?

      Ans. Maize requires moderate temperature, rainfall and lots of sunshine. It needs well-drained fertile soils. Maize is grown in North America, Brazil, China, Russia, Canada, India, and Mexico.


      Q49. What are the major crops grown in India?

      Ans. The major crops in India

      Food crops - wheat, rice, maize and millets

      Fibre crops - Jute and cotton

      Important beverage crops - tea and coffee

      Q50. Write a short note on millets.

      Ans. They are also known as coarse grains and can be grown on less fertile and sandy soils. It is a hardy crop that needs low rainfall and high to moderate temperature and adequate rainfall. Jowar, bajra and ragi are grown in India. Other countries are Nigeria, China and Niger.


      Q51. What are the climatic conditions required for growing tea?

      Ans. Tea is a beverage crop grown on plantations. This requires cool climate and well distributed high rainfall throughout the year for the growth of its tender leaves. It needs well-drained loamy soils and gentle slopes. Labour in large number is required to pick the leaves.


      Q52. Mention the important inputs and outputs of agriculture along with the operations involved.

      Ans. The important inputs are seeds, fertilisers, machinery and labour. Some of the operations involved are ploughing, sowing, irrigation, weeding and harvesting. The outputs from the system include crops, wool, dairy and poultry products.

      Q53. Why different types of crops are grown in different regions?
      Different crops are grown in different regions. Give reasons.

      Ans. Different crops are grown in different regions because growing crops depends upon the geographical conditions, demand of produce, labour and level of technology. Favourable topography of soil and climate are vital for agricultural activity.


      Q54. How can agricultural development be achieved?

      Ans. Agricultural development can be achieved in many ways such as increasing the cropped area, the number of crops grown, improving irrigation facilities, use of fertilisers and high yielding variety of seeds. Mechanisation of agriculture is also another aspect of agricultural development.


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