Ans. Distribution of Minerals
i. Minerals occur in different types of rocks. Some are found in igneous rocks, some in metamorphic rocks while others occur in sedimentary rocks.
ii. Generally, metallic minerals are found in igneous and metamorphic rock formations that form large plateaus.
iii. Iron-ore in north Sweden, copper and nickel deposits in Ontario, Canada, iron, nickel, chromites and platinum in South Africa are examples of minerals found in igneous and metamorphic rocks.
iv. Sedimentary rock formations of plains and young fold mountains contain non-metallic minerals like limestone.
v. Limestone deposits of Caucasus region of France, manganese deposits of Georgia and Ukraine and phosphate beds of Algeria are some examples.
vi. Mineral fuels such as coal and petroleum are also found in the sedimentary strata.
Ans. Iron: India has deposits of high grade iron ore. The mineral is found mainly in Jharkhand, Orissa, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, Goa, Maharashtra and Karnataka.
Bauxite: Major bauxite producing areas are Jharkhand, Orissa, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu.
Mica: Mica deposits mainly occur in Jharkhand, Bihar, Andhra Pradesh and Rajasthan. India is the largest producer and exporter of mica in the world.
Copper: It is mainly produced in Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Jharkhand, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh.
Manganese: India’s manganese deposits lie in Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Orissa, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh.
Limestone: Major limestone producing states in India are Bihar, Jharkhand, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Rajasthan, Gujarat and Tamil Nadu.
Gold: Kolar in Karnataka has deposits of gold in India. These mines are among the deepest in the world which makes mining of this ore a very expensive process.
Salt: It is obtained from seas, lakes and rocks. India is one of the world’s leading producers and exporters of salt.
Ans. Solar energy - Solar energy trapped from the sun can be used in solar cells to produce electricity. Many of these cells are joined into solar panels to generate power for heating and lighting purpose. Solar energy is also used in solar heaters, solar cookers, solar dryers besides being used for community lighting and traffic signals. The technology of utilising solar energy benefits a lot of tropical countries that are blessed with abundant sun shine.
Wind Energy - Wind is an inexhaustible source of energy. The high speed winds rotate the wind mill which is connected to a generator to produce electricity. Windfarms are found in Netherlands, Germany, Denmark, UK, USA and Spain are noted for their wind energy production.
Nuclear Power - Nuclear power is obtained from energy stored in the nuclei of atoms of naturally occurring radioactive elements like uranium and thorium. These fuels undergo nuclear fission in nuclear reactors and emit power. The greatest producers of nuclear power are USA and Europe.
Geothermal Energy - Heat energy obtained from the earth is called geothermal energy. The temperature in the interior of the earth rises steadily as we go deeper. Some times this heat energy may surface itself in the form of hot springs. This heat energy can be used to generate power. USA has the world’s largest geothermal power plants followed by New Zealand, Iceland, Philippines and Central America.
Tidal Energy - Energy generated from tides is called tidal energy. Tidal energy can be harnessed by building dams at narrow openings of the sea. During high tide the energy of the tides is used to turn the turbine installed in the dam to produce electricity. Russia, France and the Gulf of Kachchh in India have huge tidal mill farms.
Biogas - Organic waste such as dead plant and animal material, animal dung and kitchen waste can be converted into a gaseous fuel called biogas. Biogas is an excellent fuel for cooking and lighting and produces huge amount of organic manure each year.
Download to practice offline.