Topic outline

    • Mineral and Power Resources

      Q52. What are the advantages and disadvantages of biogas?

      Ans. Advantages

                              i.        Low cost.

                            ii.        Easy to operate.

                           iii.        Makes use of bio waste.


                              i.        Causes greenhouse effect.


      Q53. What are the advantages and disadvantages of solar energy?

      Ans. Advantages

                               i.        Inexhaustible.

                              ii.        Non-polluting.


                               i.        Expensive.

                              ii.        Diffused source, so get wasted.

      Q54. Distinguish between metallic and nonmetallic minerals.

      Ans. Difference between metallic and nonmetallic minerals

      Metallic minerals

      Nonmetallic minerals

      1. The metallic minerals contain metal in raw form.

      1. The non-metallic minerals do not contain metals.

      2. Example: Iron ore, bauxite,

      manganese ore

      2. Example: Limestone, mica and gypsum


      Q55. Distinguish between ferrous and nonferrous minerals.

      Ans. Difference between ferrous and nonferrous minerals

      Ferrous minerals

      Nonferrous minerals

      1. Ferrous mineral does not contain iron.

      1. Non-ferrous mineral does not contain iron but may contain some other metal.

      2. Example: iron ore, manganese and chromites

      2. Example: gold, silver, copper or lead


      Q56. Explain why fossil fuels might become exhausted.
      Why fossil fuels are likely to be exhausted soon?

      Ans. Fossil fuel such as coal, petroleum and natural gas are the main sources of conventional energy. The reserves of these minerals are limited. The rate at which the growing world population is consuming them is far greater than the rate of their formation. So, these are likely to be exhausted soon.

      Q57. Describe the mineral distribution in North America.

      Ans.  The mineral deposits in North America are located in three zones: the Canadian region north of the Great Lakes, the Appalachian region and the mountain ranges of the west. Iron ore, nickel, gold, uranium and copper are mined in the Canadian Shield Region, coal in the Appalachians region. Western Cordilleras have vast deposits of copper, lead, zinc, gold and silver.


      Q58. Explain how hydroelectricity is produced.
      What is hydroelectricity?
      What is hydel power?

      Ans.  Rain water or river water stored in dams is made to fall from heights. The falling water flows through pipes inside the dam over turbine blades placed at the bottom of the dam. The moving blades then turn the generator to produce electricity. This is called hydroelectricity. The water discharged after the generation of electricity is used for irrigation.


      Q59. Write a short note on distribution of minerals in Africa.

      Ans.  Africa is rich in mineral resources. It is the world’s largest producer of diamonds, gold and platinum. South Africa, Zimbabwe and Zaire produce a large portion of the world’s gold. The other minerals found in Africa are copper, iron ore, chromium, uranium, cobalt and bauxite. Oil is found in Nigeria, Libya and Angola.


      Q60. Write a short note on distribution of minerals in Antarctica.

      Ans.  The geology of Antarctica is sufficiently well known to predict the existence of a variety of mineral deposits, some probably large. Significant size of deposits of coal in the Transantarctic Mountains and iron near the Prince Charles Mountains of East Antarctica is forecasted. Iron ore, gold, silver and oil are also present in commercial quantities.


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