Ans. Plough is used for tilling the soil, adding fertilisers to the crop, removing the weeds, scraping of soil, etc. This implement is made of wood and is drawn by a pair of bulls or other animals (horses, camels, etc.). It contains a strong triangular iron strip called ploughshare. The main part of the plough is a long log of wood which is called a ploughshaft. There is a handle at one end of the shaft. The other end is attached to a beam which is placed on the bulls’ necks. One pair of bulls and a man can easily operate the plough.
Ans. In a field many other undesirable plants may grow naturally along with the crop. These undesirable plants are called weeds. Weeds can be controlled in the following ways:
i. Tilling before sowing of crops helps in uprooting and killing of weeds.
ii. The manual removal of weeds by uprooting or cutting them close to the ground, from time to time. This is done with the help of a khurpi. A seed drill is also used to uproot weeds.
iii. Weeds are also controlled by using certain chemicals, called weedicides, like 2,4-D. These are sprayed in the fields to kill the weeds.
Ans. The supply of water to crops at different intervals is called irrigation.
Sprinkler System: This system is more useful on the uneven land where sufficient water is not available. The perpendicular pipes, having rotating nozzles on top, are joined to the main pipeline at regular intervals. When water is allowed to flow through the main pipe under pressure with the help of a pump, it escapes from the rotating nozzles. It gets sprinkled on the crop as if it is raining. Sprinkler is very useful for sandy soil.
Drip system: In this system, the water falls drop by drop just at the position of the roots. So it is called drip system. It is the best technique for watering fruit plants, gardens and trees. The system provides water to plants drop by drop. Water is not wasted at all.
5. Preparation of soil
6. Ploughing the field
1. Sending crop to sugar factory
Ans. Importance of tilling
i. This allows the roots to penetrate deep into the soil. The loose soil allows the roots to breathe easily even when they go deep into the soil.
ii. The loosened soil helps in the growth of earthworms and microbes present in the soil. They further turn and loosen the soil and add humus to it.
iii. This brings the nutrient-rich soil to the top so that plants can use these nutrients.
iv. Tilling before sowing of crops helps in uprooting and killing of weeds.
Ans. Preparation of soil
i. The preparation of soil is the first step before growing a crop.
ii. One of the most important tasks in agriculture is to turn the soil and loosen it. This allows the roots to penetrate deep into the soil. The process of loosening and turning of the soil is called tilling or ploughing. This is done by using a plough.
iii. The ploughed field may have big pieces of soil called crumbs. It is necessary to break these crumbs with a plank.
iv. The field is levelled for sowing as well as for irrigation purposes. The levelling of soil is done with the help of a leveller.
v. Sometimes, manure is added to the soil before tilling. This helps in proper mixing of manure with soil. The soil is watered before sowing.
i. Sowing is the most important part of crop production. Before sowing, good quality seeds are selected.
ii. The tool used traditionally for sowing seeds is shaped like a funnel. The seeds are filled into the funnel, passed down through two or three pipes having sharp ends. These ends pierce into the soil and place seeds there.
iii. Nowadays the seed drill is used for sowing with the help of tractors. This tool sows the seeds uniformly at proper distances and depths. It ensures that seeds get covered by the soil after sowing. This prevents damage caused by birds. Sowing by using a seed drill saves time and labour.
i. The removal of weeds is called weeding. Weeding is necessary since weeds compete with the crop plants for water, nutrients, space and light.
ii. Farmers adopt many ways to remove weeds and control their growth. Tilling before sowing of crops helps in uprooting and killing of weeds, which may then dry up and get mixed with the soil.
iii. The best time for the removal of weeds is before they produce flowers and seeds.
iv. The manual removal includes physical removal of weeds by uprooting or cutting them close to the ground, from time to time. This is done with the help of a khurpi. A seed drill is also used to uproot weeds.
v. Weeds are also controlled by using certain chemicals, called weedicides, like 2,4-D. These are sprayed in the fields to kill the weeds.
In the harvested crop, the grain seeds need to be separated from the chaff. This process is called threshing. This is carried out with the help of a machine called ‘combine’ which is in fact a combined harvester and thresher.