Q69. Make two paper cups by folding a sheet of paper. Pour about
50 mL of water in one of the cups. Heat both the cups separately with a candle.
What do you observe?
What happens to the empty
paper cup and why?
What happens to the paper cup
with water and why?
Does water in this cup become
a. The empty paper cup catches fire easily and starts burning because the
ignition temperature of paper reaches quickly.
When we heat the paper cup containing water, then the heat supplied to the
paper cup is transferred to water inside it by conduction. So, in the presence
of water, the ignition temperature of paper cup is not reached, and hence the
paper cup does not catch fire.
Yes, the water in this paper cup becomes hot gradually.
Q70. How will you show that air is necessary for combustion?
Write an activity to show that oxygen is necessary for
How would you show that air is needed for combustion?
How will you show that air is essential for burning fuels?
What will happen if a burning candle is covered with a glass jar?
Write an experiment to show that air is essential for burning.
Ans. Fix a lighted candle on a table. Put a glass
chimney over the candle and rest it on a few wooden blocks in such a way that
air can enter the chimney. We will see that candle burns
freely in case (a) when air can enter the chimney from below. Now remove the blocks
and let the chimney rest on the table. Now, we will observe that in case (b),
when air does not enter the chimney from below, the flame flickers and produces
smoke. Finally, put a glass plate over the chimney. Here, in case (c), the
flame finally goes off because the air is not available.
observation shows that air is necessary for combustion (or burning) to take
Q71. Explain the structure of candle flame with diagram.
Ans. A flame consists of three zones.
The innermost zone of a flame is dark (or
black) – It consists of hot, unburnt vapours of the combustible materials. It
is the least hot part of the flame.
The middle zone of a flame is yellow – It
is bright and luminous. The fuel vapours burn partially in the middle zone
because there is not enough air for burning in this zone. This zone produces a
moderate temperature. This zone is the major part of a candle flame.
The outer zone of a flame is blue – It is
non-luminous zone. In this zone complete combustion of the fuel takes place
because there is plenty of air around it. This zone has the highest temperature
in the flame.
Image from NCERT