Friend and Foe
Q71. What are communicable diseases? Give examples.
diseases that can spread from an infected person to a healthy person through
air, water, food or physical contact are called communicable diseases. Examples
of such diseases include cholera, common cold, chicken pox and tuberculosis.
Q72. Can microorganisms be seen with the naked eye? If not, how
can they be seen?
or microbes are so small in size that they cannot be seen with the unaided eye.
Some of these, such as the fungus that grows on bread, can be seen with a
magnifying glass. Others cannot be seen without the help of a microscope.
Q73. Where do microorganisms live?
Ans. They can survive under all types of environment,
ranging from ice cold climate to hot springs and deserts to marshy lands. They
are also found inside the bodies of animals including humans. Some
microorganisms grow on other organisms while others exist freely. Microorganisms
like amoeba can live alone, while fungi and bacteria may live in colonies.
Q74. Why is curd an important ingredient in making rava idlis
is added while making idli and bhatura dough as curd contains Lactobacillus
bacteria that undergoes anaerobic respiration and in this process it acts on
sugar of the flour and releases carbon dioxide gas, this gas make the dough
rise and when baked or fried gas escapes leaving the idli or bhatura soft and
Q75. How a vaccine works?
Ans. When a disease-carrying microbe enters our body,
the body produces antibodies to fight the invader. The body also remembers how
to fight the microbe if it enters again. So, if dead or weakened microbes are
introduced in a healthy body, the body fights and kills them by producing
suitable antibodies. The antibodies remain in the body and we
are protected from the disease causing microbes. This is how a vaccine works.
Q76. Mention some important uses of fungi.
Some antibiotics are made from fungi.
When plants and animals die fungi present
in the soil convert the nitrogenous wastes into nitrogenous compounds to be
used by plants again.
Yeasts are single-celled fungi. It is used
in baking industry for making breads, pastries and cakes and for commercial
production of alcohol and wine.
Q77. Write 10 lines on the usefulness of microorganisms in our
play an important role in our lives. Some of them are beneficial in many ways.
They are used in the preparation of curd,
bread and cake.
They are used for the large scale
production of alcohol, wine and acetic acid (vinegar).
They are also used in cleaning up of the
environment. For example, the organic wastes (vegetable peels,
remains of animals, faeces, etc.) are broken down into harmless and usable
substances by bacteria.
Bacteria are also used in the preparation
In agriculture they are used to increase
soil fertility by fixing nitrogen.
Q78. What are antibiotics? What precautions must be taken while
are the medicines prepared from microorganisms to kill or stop the growth of
the disease-causing microorganisms.
to be taken while taking antibiotics:
Antibiotics should be taken only on the
advice of a qualified doctor.
Course of antibiotics should be completed
as prescribed by the doctor.
Antibiotics should be taken in the right
amount and at the right time. If antibiotics are taken unnecessarily it may
kill the beneficial bacteria in the body.
Antibiotics are not effective against cold
and flu as these are caused by viruses.