Shirt in the Market
Q25. What are the demands foreign buyers make on the garment
exporters? Why do the garment exporters agree to these demands?
They demand the lowest prices from the supplier. In addition, they set high standards
for quality of production and timely delivery. Any defects or delay in delivery
is dealt with strictly.
garment exporters agree to these demands because they get the maximum work out
of the workers at the lowest possible wages. This way they can maximise their own
profits and also supply the garments to foreign buyers at a cheap price.
Q26. How does market work in favour of the rich and powerful?
What are the ways to overcome them?
is usually the rich and the powerful that get the maximum
earnings from the market. These are the people who have money and own the factories,
the large shops, large land holdings, etc. The poor have to depend on the rich
and the powerful for various things. They have to depend for loans, for raw materials
and marketing of their goods, and most often for employment. Because of this
dependence, the poor are exploited in the market.
are ways to overcome these such as forming cooperatives of producers and
ensuring that laws are followed strictly.
Q27. Think of something common that we use. It could be sugar,
tea, milk, pen, paper, pencil, etc. Discuss through what chain of markets this
reaches you. Can you think of the people that help in the production or trade?
Chain of markets to produce Milk
Dairy cooperatives first purchase milk at different locations.
After that, milk is transported to the milk factories by the dairy
Milk is processed in the factories and is packed.
Packets are then given to the traders who transport them to cities where
wholesaler purchase these.
Retailers purchase from the wholesalers then sell these packets of milk to the
consumers in the open market in booths.
Q28. How is putting out system advantageous and disadvantageous
for the weavers?
For the weavers, this arrangement seemingly has two advantages.
The weavers do not have to spend their
money on purchase of yarn.
The problem of selling the finished cloth
is taken care of.
the weavers, this arrangement has following disadvantages.
They have to depend on the merchants both
for raw materials and markets.
Under this system the merchants have a lot
of power. They give orders for what is to be made and they pay a very low price
for making the cloth.
The weavers have no way of knowing
who they are making the cloth for or at what price it will be sold.
Q29. Describe the conditions of employment as well as the wages
of workers in the garment exporting factory. Do you think the workers get a
are made to work for long hours. They have pressure to produce quality product
in limited time. Most of these workers are employed on a
temporary basis. This means that whenever the employer feels that a worker is
not needed, the worker can be asked to leave. Workers’ wages are fixed according
to their skills. The highest paid among the workers are the tailors who get
about Rs 3,000 per month. Women are employed as helpers for thread cutting, buttoning,
ironing and packaging. These jobs have the lowest wages.
the workers do not get a fair deal because they are paid lowest possible wages
and on the other hand most of these workers are employed on a temporary basis.
Q30. Establish relationship between the market and equality.
Do you think that everyone gains equally in the market?
Explain relationship between the market and equality with the
help of example.
The foreign businessperson made huge profits in the market. Compared to this,
the garment exporter made only moderate profits. On the other hand, the earnings
of the workers at the garment export factory are barely enough to cover their
day-to-day needs. Similarly, we saw the small cotton farmer and the weaver at
Erode put in long hours of hard work. But they did not get a fair price in the
market for what they produced. The merchants or traders are somewhere in between.
Compared to the weavers, they have earned more but it is still much less than the
exporter. Thus, not everyone gains equally in the market.
Q31. Arrange the statements given alongside in the correct order
and then fill in the numbers in the cotton bolls accordingly. The first two
have already been done for you.
1. Swapna sells the cotton to the trader.
2. Customers buy these shirts in a supermarket.
3. Trader sells cotton to the Ginning Mill.
4. Garment exporters buy the cloth from merchants for making
5. Yarn dealers or merchants give the yarn to the weavers.
6. The exporter sells shirts to the businessperson from the USA.
7. Spinning mill buys the cotton and sells yarn to the yarn
8. Weavers return with the cloth.
9. Ginning mill cleans the cotton and makes it into bales.
Swapna sells the cotton to the trader.
Trader sells cotton to the Ginning Mill.
Ginning mill cleans the cotton and makes it into bales.
Spinning mill buys the cotton and sells yarn to the yarn dealers.
Yarn dealers or merchants give the yarn to the weavers.
Weavers return with the cloth.
Garment exporters buy the cloth from merchants for making shirts.
The exporter sells shirts to the businessperson from the USA.
Customers buy these shirts in a supermarket.