Traders and Craftspersons
Q44. Write a short note on “lost wax” technique.
bronze statues were made using the “lost wax” technique.
First, an image was made of wax. This was
covered with clay and allowed to dry.
Next it was heated, and a tiny hole was
made in the clay cover. The molten wax was drained out through this hole.
Then molten metal was poured into the clay
mould through the hole. Once the metal cooled and solidified, the clay cover
was carefully removed, and the image was cleaned and polished.
Q45. How was the architecture of Hampi distinctive?
Architecture of Hampi was distinctive in several ways:
The Hampi was a well-fortified city. No
mortar or cementing agent was used in the construction of these walls and the
technique followed was to wedge them together by interlocking.
The buildings in the royal complex had
splendid arches, domes and pillared halls with niches for holding sculptures.
They also had well-planned orchards and
pleasure gardens with sculptural motifs such as the lotus and corbels.
Q46. Why did people from distant lands visit Surat?
from distant lands visited Surat because of the following reason:
Surat was the gateway for trade with West
Asia via the Gulf of Ormuz.
Surat has also been called the gate to
Mecca because many pilgrim ships set sail from here.
The textiles of Surat were famous for their
gold lace borders (zari) and had a market in West Asia, Africa and Europe.
The state built numerous rest-houses to
take care of the needs of people from all over the world who came to the city.
There were magnificent buildings and innumerable pleasure parks.
Q47. Describe the trading community of the medieval period.
were many kinds of traders. These included the Banjaras. Several traders, especially
horse traders, formed associations, with headmen who negotiated on their behalf
with warriors who bought horses. There were also communities
like the Chettiars and the Marwari Oswal who went on to become the principal
trading groups of the country. Gujarati traders, including the communities of
Hindu Baniyas and Muslim Bohras, traded extensively with the ports of the Red
Sea, Persian Gulf, East Africa, Southeast Asia and China. The
towns on the west coast were home to Arab, Persian, Chinese, Jewish and Syrian
Q48. In what ways was craft production in cities like Calcutta
different from that in cities like Thanjavur?
Craft persons of Calcutta began to work on a system of advances which meant that
they had to weave cloth which was already promised to European agents. Weavers
no longer had the liberty of selling their own cloth or weaving their own
patterns. They had to reproduce the designs supplied to them by the Company agents.
persons of Thanjavur were independent. They had the liberty of selling their
own cloth or crafts. The Saliya weavers of Thanjavur and the nearby town of Uraiyur
produce cloth for flags to be used in the temple festival, fine cottons for the
king and nobility and coarse cotton for the masses. The sthapatis or sculptors make
exquisite bronze idols and tall, ornamental bell metal lamps.
Q49. Write a note about network of small towns that emerged
after eighth century onward.
the eighth century onwards the subcontinent was dotted with several small
Small towns probably emerged from large
villages. They usually had a mandapika (or mandi of later times) to which
nearby villagers brought their produce to sell.
They also had market streets called hatta
lined with shops. Besides, there were streets for different kinds of artisans
such as potters, oil pressers, sugar makers, toddy makers, smiths, stonemasons,
While some traders lived in the town,
others travelled from town to town. Many came from far and near to these towns
to buy local articles and sell products of distant places like horses, salt,
camphor, saffron, betel nut and spices like pepper.