Q38. How did the Mughal court suggest that everyone – the rich
and the poor, the powerful and the weak – received justice equally from the
connection between royal justice and the imperial court was emphasised by Shah
Jahan in his newly constructed court in the Red Fort at Delhi. Behind the
emperor’s throne were a series of pietra dura inlays that depicted the legendary
Greek god Orpheus playing the lute. It was believed that Orpheus’s music could calm
ferocious beasts until they coexisted together peaceably. The construction of
Shah Jahan’s audience hall aimed to communicate that the king’s justice would treat
the high and the low as equals creating a world where all could live together
Q39. What are the important architectural features of Humayun's
Architectural features of Humayun's tomb
The central towering dome and the tall
gateway (pishtaq) became important aspects of Mughal architecture,
first visible in Humayun’s tomb.
The tomb was placed in the centre of a huge
formal chahar bagh and built in the tradition known as “eight paradises” or
hasht bihisht – a central hall surrounded by eight rooms.
The building was constructed with red
sandstone, edged with white marble.
Q40. List the two technological and stylistic developments
noticeable from the twelfth century.
Two technological and stylistic developments are noticeable from the twelfth century.
The weight of the superstructure above the
doors and windows was sometimes carried by arches. This architectural form was
Limestone cement was increasingly used in
construction. This was very high-quality cement, which, when mixed with stone
chips hardened into concrete. This made construction of large structures easier
Q41. How were the policies of Rajendra I and Sultan Mahmud of
In the early eleventh century, when the Chola king Rajendra I built a Shiva
temple in his capital he filled it with prized statues seized from defeated rulers.
Mahmud of Ghazni was a contemporary of Rajendra I. During his campaigns in the
subcontinent he also attacked the temples of defeated kings and looted their
wealth and idols. Sultan Mahmud was not a very important ruler at that time.
But by destroying temples – especially the one at Somnath – he tried to win
credit as a great hero of Islam.
Rajendra I constructed the temple whereas Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni destroyed it.
In this way their policies were different.