Q51. What were the major campaigns and events of Akbar reign?
Akbar was 13 years old when he became emperor. His reign can be divided into
1556-1570 – Akbar became independent of the
regent Bairam Khan and other members of his domestic staff. Military campaigns
were launched against the Suris and other Afghans, against the neighbouring
kingdoms of Malwa and Gondwana, and to suppress the revolt of his half-brother
Mirza Hakim and the Uzbegs. In 1568 the Sisodiya capital of Chittor was seized
and in 1569 Ranthambhor.
1570-1585 – military campaigns in Gujarat
were followed by campaigns in the east in Bihar, Bengal and Orissa. These
campaigns were complicated by the 1579-1580 revolt in support of Mirza Hakim.
1585-1605 – expansion of Akbar’s empire.
Campaigns were launched in the north-west. Qandahar was seized from the
Safavids, Kashmir was annexed, as also Kabul, after the death of Mirza Hakim.
Campaigns in the Deccan started and Berar, Khandesh and parts of Ahmadnagar
Q52. Write a short note on Akbar’s administrative policies?
The broad features of administration were laid down by Akbar and were elaborately
discussed by Abul Fazl in his book, the Akbar Nama, in particular in its last
volume, the Ain-i Akbari. Abul Fazl explained that the empire was divided into
provinces called subas, governed by a subadar who carried out both political
and military functions. Each province also had a financial officer or diwan. For
the maintenance of peace and order in his province, the subadar was supported
by other officers such as the military paymaster (bakhshi), the minister in
charge of religious and charitable patronage (sadr), military commanders
(faujdars) and the town police commander (kotwal). He was interested in the
religion and social customs of different people. So, he followed the principle
of governance called sulh-i kul or “universal peace”. This idea of tolerance
did not discriminate between people of different religions in his realm.
Instead it focused on a system of ethics – honesty, justice and peace – that
was universally applicable.
Q53. Write a note on the Mughal Empire in the seventeenth
century and after?
Mughal Empire in the Seventeenth Century and After
The administrative and military efficiency
of the Mughal Empire led to great economic and commercial prosperity.
International travellers described it as the fabled land of wealth. But these
same visitors were also appalled at the state of poverty that existed side by
side with the greatest opulence.
The Mughal emperors and their mansabdars
spent a great deal of their income on salaries and goods. This expenditure
benefited the artisans and peasantry who supplied them with goods and produce.
But the scale of revenue collection left very little for investment in the
hands of the primary producers – the peasant and the artisan.
enormous wealth and resources commanded by the Mughal elite made them an
extremely powerful group of people in the late seventeenth century. As the
authority of the Mughal emperor slowly declined, his servants emerged as
powerful centres of power in the regions. They constituted new dynasties and
held command of provinces like Hyderabad and Awadh. Although they continued to
recognise the Mughal emperor in Delhi as their master, by the eighteenth
century the provinces of the empire had consolidated their independent