Q37. Write about the major campaigns and events of Shah Jahan
campaigns continued in the Deccan under Shah Jahan. The Afghan noble Khan Jahan
Lodi rebelled and was defeated. Campaigns were launched against Ahmadnagar; the
Bundelas were defeated and Orchha seized. In the north-west, the campaign to
seize Balkh from the Uzbegs was unsuccessful and Qandahar was lost to the
Safavids. In 1632 Ahmadnagar was finally annexed and the Bijapur forces sued
Q38. What were the main features of sulh-i kul?
Write short notes on Akbar's religious policy.
Akbar introduced the idea of sulh-i kul or “universal peace”. Its main features
This idea of tolerance did not discriminate
between people of different religions in his realm.
Instead it focused on a system of ethics –
honesty, justice and peace – that was universally applicable.
Q39. Why was it important for the Mughals to recruit mansabdars
from diverse backgrounds and not just Turanis and Iranis?
the empire expanded to encompass different regions the Mughals recruited
diverse bodies of people. From a small nucleus of Turkish nobles (Turanis) they
expanded to include Iranians, Indian Muslims, Afghans, Rajputs, Marathas and
other groups. Those who joined Mughal service were enrolled as mansabdars.
Q40. Write a short note on ‘Babur’?
Ans. About Babur
Babur, the first Mughal emperor
(1526-1530), succeeded to the throne of Ferghana in 1494 when he was only 12
He was forced to leave his ancestral throne
due to the invasion of another Mongol group, the Uzbegs.
After years of wandering he seized Kabul in
1504. In 1526 he defeated the Sultan of Delhi, Ibrahim Lodi, at Panipat and
captured Delhi and Agra.
Q41. Write short note on Humayun.
Humayun divided his inheritance according
to the will of his father. His brothers were each given a province. The
ambitions of his brother Mirza Kamran weakened Humayun’s cause against Afghan
competitors. Sher Khan defeated Humayun at Chausa (1539) and Kanauj (1540),
forcing him to flee to Iran.
In Iran Humayun received help from the
Safavid Shah. He recaptured Delhi in 1555 but died the next year after an
accident in this building.
Q42. How were the debates with religious scholars important in
the formation of Akbar’s ideas on governance?
interaction with people of different faiths made him realise that religious
scholars who emphasised ritual and dogma were often bigots. Their teachings
created divisions and disharmony amongst his subjects. This eventually led
Akbar to the idea of sulh-i kul or “universal peace”. This idea of tolerance
did not discriminate between people of different religions in his realm.
Instead it focused on a system of ethics – honesty, justice and peace – that
was universally applicable.
Q43. Why did the Mughals emphasise their Timurid and not their
Mughals were descendants of two great lineages of rulers. From their mother’s
side they were descendants of Genghis Khan (died 1227), ruler of the Mongol
tribes, China and Central Asia. From their father’s side they were the
successors of Timur (died 1404), the ruler of Iran, Iraq and modern-day Turkey.
However, the Mughals did not like to be called Mughal or Mongol. This was because
Genghis Khan’s memory was associated with the massacre of innumerable people. It
was also linked with the Uzbegs, their Mongol competitors. On the other hand,
the Mughals were proud of their Timurid ancestry, not least of all because their
great ancestor had captured Delhi in 1398.
Q44. How important was the income from land revenue to the
stability of the Mughal Empire?
The main source of income available to Mughal rulers was from land revenue. The
Mughal Empire was very large and therefore for administration and maintaining
law and order, a huge amount of revenue was needed which comes from the land
revenue. The land revenue was also needed for salaries of the soldiers and
officials and welfare works for the common people. The enormous wealth and
resources commanded by the Mughal elite made them an extremely powerful group
of people in the late seventeenth century. Thus, we can say that land
revenue played a crucial role in the stability of the Mughal Empire.