Environment-Settlement, Transport and Communication
Q38. What changes made transport easier?
Invention of the wheel made transport easier. With the passage of time different
means of transport developed but even today people use animals for transport.
have made travel faster. Modern means of transport thus saves time and
Q39. How airways important to us?
is the only mode of transport to reach the most remote and distant areas especially
where there are no roads and railways. Helicopters are extremely useful in most
inaccessible areas and in time of calamities for rescuing people and distributing
food, water, clothes and medicines.
Q40. Mention the natural conditions for selection of an ideal site?
natural conditions for selection of an ideal site are-
availability of water
Q41. Write a short note on roadways.
The most commonly used means of transport especially for short distances are roads.
They can be metalled (pucca) and unmetalled (kutcha). The plains have a dense
network of roads. Roads have also been built in terrains like deserts, forests
and even high mountains. Manali-Leh highway in the Himlayan Mountains is one of
the highest roadways in the world. Roads built underground are called
subways/under paths. Flyovers are built over raised structures.
Q42. Today’s world is shrinking. Give reason.
Modern means of transport have made travel
faster. Thus saves time and energy. The advancement in the field of
communication has brought about an information revolution in the world. Through
newspapers, radio and television we can communicate with a large number of
people. The satellites have made communication even faster. Internet provides
us with worldwide information and interaction. With this kind of
inter connectivity of people, services and institutions across the world; we
are a large global society. So, it is right to say that today’s world is
Q43. What are the characteristics of houses built in rural areas?
Characteristics of houses built in rural areas
In rural areas, people build houses to suit
In regions of heavy rainfall, they have
Places where water accumulates in the rainy
season the houses are constructed on a raised platform or stilts.
Thick mud walled houses with thatched roofs
are very common in areas of hot climate.
Local materials like stones, mud, clay,
straw etc are used to construct houses.
Q44. Write short notes on airways?
is the fastest way of transport developed in the early twentieth century. It is
also the most expensive due to high cost of fuels. Air traffic is adversely
affected by bad weather like fog and storms. It is the only mode of transport
to reach the most remote and distant areas especially where there are no roads
and railways. Helicopters are extremely useful in most inaccessible areas and
in time of calamities for rescuing people and distributing food, water, clothes
and medicines. Some of the important airports are Delhi, Mumbai, New York,
London, Paris, Frankfurt and Cairo.
Q45. Write a short note on railways.
The railways carry heavy goods and people over long distances quickly and cheaply.
The invention of the steam engine and the Industrial Revolution helped in
speedy development of rail transport. Diesel and electric engines have largely
replaced the steam engines. In places superfast trains have been introduced to
make the journey faster. The railway network is well developed over the plain
areas. Advanced technological skills have enabled laying of railway lines in difficult
mountain terrains also. But these are much fewer in number. Indian railway
network is well developed. It is the largest in Asia.
Q46. Discuss the two types of waterways.
are the cheapest for carrying heavy and bulky goods over long distances. They are
mainly of two types – inland waterways and sea routes.
waterways - Navigable rivers and lakes are used as inland
waterways. Some of the important inland waterways are the Ganga-Brahmaputra river
system, the Great Lakes in North America and the river Nile in Africa.
routes - Sea routes and oceanic routes are mostly used for
transporting merchandise and goods from one country to another. These routes
are connected with the ports. Some of the important ports of the world are Singapore
and Mumbai in Asia, New York, Los Angeles in North America etc.