Ans. Invention of the wheel made transport easier. With the passage of time different means of transport developed but even today people use animals for transport. Aeroplanes have made travel faster. Modern means of transport thus saves time and energy.
Ans. It is the only mode of transport to reach the most remote and distant areas especially where there are no roads and railways. Helicopters are extremely useful in most inaccessible areas and in time of calamities for rescuing people and distributing food, water, clothes and medicines.
Ans. The natural conditions for selection of an ideal site are-
i. favourable climate
ii. availability of water
iii. suitable land
iv. fertile soil
Ans. The most commonly used means of transport especially for short distances are roads. They can be metalled (pucca) and unmetalled (kutcha). The plains have a dense network of roads. Roads have also been built in terrains like deserts, forests and even high mountains. Manali-Leh highway in the Himlayan Mountains is one of the highest roadways in the world. Roads built underground are called subways/under paths. Flyovers are built over raised structures.
Ans. Modern means of transport have made travel faster. Thus saves time and energy. The advancement in the field of communication has brought about an information revolution in the world. Through newspapers, radio and television we can communicate with a large number of people. The satellites have made communication even faster. Internet provides us with worldwide information and interaction. With this kind of inter connectivity of people, services and institutions across the world; we are a large global society. So, it is right to say that today’s world is shrinking.
Ans. Characteristics of houses built in rural areas
i. In rural areas, people build houses to suit their environment.
ii. In regions of heavy rainfall, they have slanting roofs.
iii. Places where water accumulates in the rainy season the houses are constructed on a raised platform or stilts.
iv. Thick mud walled houses with thatched roofs are very common in areas of hot climate.
v. Local materials like stones, mud, clay, straw etc are used to construct houses.
Ans. This is the fastest way of transport developed in the early twentieth century. It is also the most expensive due to high cost of fuels. Air traffic is adversely affected by bad weather like fog and storms. It is the only mode of transport to reach the most remote and distant areas especially where there are no roads and railways. Helicopters are extremely useful in most inaccessible areas and in time of calamities for rescuing people and distributing food, water, clothes and medicines. Some of the important airports are Delhi, Mumbai, New York, London, Paris, Frankfurt and Cairo.
Ans. The railways carry heavy goods and people over long distances quickly and cheaply. The invention of the steam engine and the Industrial Revolution helped in speedy development of rail transport. Diesel and electric engines have largely replaced the steam engines. In places superfast trains have been introduced to make the journey faster. The railway network is well developed over the plain areas. Advanced technological skills have enabled laying of railway lines in difficult mountain terrains also. But these are much fewer in number. Indian railway network is well developed. It is the largest in Asia.
Ans. Waterways are the cheapest for carrying heavy and bulky goods over long distances. They are mainly of two types – inland waterways and sea routes.
Inland waterways - Navigable rivers and lakes are used as inland waterways. Some of the important inland waterways are the Ganga-Brahmaputra river system, the Great Lakes in North America and the river Nile in Africa.
Sea routes - Sea routes and oceanic routes are mostly used for transporting merchandise and goods from one country to another. These routes are connected with the ports. Some of the important ports of the world are Singapore and Mumbai in Asia, New York, Los Angeles in North America etc.
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