Q48. Explain the conditions which led to the rise of Jacobins.
Ans. The revolutionary wars brought losses and
economic difficulties to the people. Large sections of the population were convinced
that the revolution had to be carried further, as the Constitution of 1791 gave
political rights only to the richer sections of society. Political clubs became
an important rallying point for people who wished to discuss government
policies and plan their own forms of action. The most successful of these clubs
was that of the Jacobins, which got its name from the former convent of St Jacob
Q49. How was the church responsible for the French Revolution?
Why was church responsible for French Revolution?
Ans. The church was responsible for the French
Revolution in the following ways:
The Church too extracted its share of taxes
called tithes from the peasants.
The members of the church, clergy belonged
to the First Estate. The clergy enjoyed certain privileges by birth. The most
important of these was exemption from paying taxes to the state.
About 60 per cent of the land was owned by
nobles, the Church and other richer members of the third estate.
Q50. How did political system work in France under the
constitution of 1791?
Highlight any five features of the constitution of 1791 in France.
Ans. The National Assembly completed the draft of the
constitution in 1791. Its main object was to limit the powers of the monarch.
These powers instead of being concentrated in the hands of one person, were now
separated and assigned to different institutions the legislature, executive and
judiciary. This made France a constitutional monarchy. The
Constitution of 1791 vested the power to make laws in the National Assembly,
which was indirectly elected. That is, citizens voted for a group of electors,
who in turn chose the Assembly.
Q51. What was the condition of women in France before the
Describe the condition of women in France in 18th
Evaluate the status of women in France before the revolution.
Ans. Status of women in France before the
Most women of the third estate had to work
for a living. They worked as seamstresses or laundresses, sold flowers, fruits
and vegetables at the market, or were employed as domestic servants.
Most women did not have access to education
or job training. Only daughters of nobles or wealthier members of the third
estate could study at a convent.
Working women had also to care for their
families. Their wages were lower than those of men.
Q52. What does subsistence crisis mean? What led to subsistence
crisis in France?
Ans. Subsistence crisis is an extreme situation where
the basic means of livelihood are endangered.
population of France rose from about 23 million in 1715 to 28 million in 1789.
This led to a rapid increase in the demand for food grains. Production of grains
could not keep pace with the demand. So the price of bread which was the staple
diet of the majority rose rapidly. But wages did not keep pace with the rise in
prices. So the gap between the poor and the rich widened. Things became worse
whenever drought or hail reduced the harvest. This led to a subsistence crisis.
Q53. What was the significance of ‘Tennis Court Oath’ in French Revolution?
What was the ‘Tennis Court Oath’ and why was it so important?
Ans. The representatives of the third estate viewed
themselves as spokesmen for the whole French nation. On 20 June they assembled
in the hall of an indoor tennis court in the grounds of Versailles. They
declared themselves a National Assembly and swore not to disperse till they had
drafted a constitution for France that would limit the powers of the monarch.
Tennis Court Oath was significant because it showed the growing unrest against
Louis XVI and laid the foundation for later events, including: the Declaration
of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen and the storming of the Bastille.
Q54. Evaluate the countryside condition during French Revolution.
Ans. The countryside condition during French
In the countryside, rumours spread from
village to village that the lords of the manor had hired bands of brigands who
were on their way to destroy the ripe crops.
Caught in a frenzy of fear, peasants in
several districts seized hoes and pitchforks and attacked chateaux.
They looted hoarded grain and burnt down
documents containing records of manorial dues.
A large number of nobles fled from their
homes, many of them migrating to neighbouring countries.
Q55. What compelled Louis XVI to raise taxes in France?
Explain the circumstances which compelled Louis XVI to raise
taxes in France.
Ans. The following reasons compelled Louis XVI to
raise taxes in France.
Long years of war had drained the financial
resources of France.
Added to this was the cost of maintaining
an extravagant court at the immense palace of Versailles.
Under Louis XVI, France helped the thirteen
American colonies to gain their independence from the common enemy, Britain.
Lenders, who gave the state credit, now
began to charge 10 per cent interest on loans.
Regular expenses, such as the cost of
maintaining an army, the court, running government offices or universities
could not be avoided.