Forest Society and Colonialism
Q37. What are forest villages?
Ans. Some villages were allowed to stay on in the reserved forests on the condition that they worked free for the forest department in cutting and transporting trees, and protecting the forest from fires. Subsequently, these came to be known as forest villages.
Q38. Mention any two methods used by Saminists to revolt against Dutch.
Ans. Methods used were:
- Some of the Saminists protested by lying down on their land when the Dutch came to survey it.
- Others refused to pay taxes or fines or perform labour.
Q39. What was the blandongdiensten system?
What is meant by blandongdiensten system?
Describe blandongdiensten system.
Who followed the Blandongdiensten system in Java?
Ans. The Dutch first imposed rents on land being cultivated in the forest and then exempted some villages from these rents if they worked collectively to provide free labour and buffaloes for cutting and transporting timber. This was known as the blandongdiensten system.
Q40. What are the local names of shifting cultivation or swidden agriculture?
Ans. It has many local names such as lading in Southeast Asia, milpa in Central America, chitemene or tavy in Africa, and chena in Sri Lanka. In India, dhya, penda, bewar, nevad, jhum, podu, khandad and kumri are some of the local terms for swidden agriculture.
Q41. Who were mundurucu peoples of Brazilian amazon?
Ans. Mundurucu peoples of the Brazilian Amazon lived in villages on high ground and cultivated manioc. They began to collect latex from wild rubber trees for supplying to traders. Gradually, they descended to live in trading posts and became completely dependent on traders.
Q42. Why did British encourage the production of commercial crop in India?
Why did British want commercial crops to be grown in India?
Why did British government insist on the production of cash crops in India?
Ans. British directly encouraged the production of commercial crops like jute, sugar, wheat and cotton. The demand for these crops increased in nineteenth-century Europe where food grains were needed to feed the growing urban population and raw materials were required for industrial production.
Q43. “The ship industry of England was also responsible for deforestation in India”. Give one reason.
How did the ship industry of England also responsible for deforestation in India?
Ans. By the early nineteenth century, oak forests in England were disappearing. This created a problem of timber supply for the Royal Navy. By the 1820s, search parties were sent to explore the forest resources of India. Within a decade, trees were being felled on a massive scale and vast quantities of timber were being exported from India.
Q44. Why did the Dutch feel the need to enact forest laws in Java?
Why did the Dutch enact forest laws in Java? Highlight its main provisions.
Why did the Dutch enact forest laws in Java?
Ans. In the nineteenth century, when it became important to control territory and not just people, the Dutch enacted forest laws in Java, restricting villagers’ access to forests. Now wood could only be cut for specified purposes like making river boats or constructing houses, and only from specific forests under close supervision.
Q45. Name the various communities who live in Bastar.
Name the communities living in Bastar. What are some of the belief of the communities of Bastar regarding nature?
Ans. A number of different communities live in Bastar such as Maria and Muria Gonds, Dhurwas, Bhatras and Halbas. They speak different languages but share common customs and beliefs. The people of Bastar believe that each village was given its land by the Earth, and in return, they look after the earth by making some offerings at each agricultural festival.
Q46. In which three categories forests were divided according to 1878 Act?
Mention the categories into which the forests were divided as per the forest Act 1878.
Name the categories of forests under Forest Act of 1878.
How were the forest divided according to the Forest Act of 1878?
How were forests classified on the basis of the Forest Act, 1878?
Ans. The 1878 Act divided forests into three categories: reserved, protected and village forests. The best forests were called reserved forests. Villagers could not take anything from these forests, even for their own use. For house building or fuel, they could take wood from protected or village forests.