Topic outline

    • Forest Society and Colonialism

      Q1. Name the colonial power in Indonesia.

      Ans. Dutch


      Q2. What is the other name of Swidden Agriculture?

      Ans. Shifting cultivation


      Q3. Where did the reservation first take place in Bastar?

      Ans. Kanger forest


      Q4. When did the first rebellion take place in Bastar?

      Ans. The first rebellion took place in Bastar in 1910.

      Q5. Which river flows through Bastar region?

      Ans. The river Indrawati winds across Bastar east to west.


      Q6. Name a few sacred groves.

      Ans. sarnas, devarakudu, kan and rai, etc.


      Q7. Name three pastoralist and nomadic communities of the Madras Presidency.

      Ans. Korava, Karacha and Yerukula


      Q8. Who started forest management in Java?
      Where did the Dutch started forest management?
      Where did the Dutch start forest management in Indonesia?
      Which colonial power started forest management in Java?

      Ans. Java in Indonesia is where the Dutch started forest management.


      Q9. What is deforestation? 

      Ans. The disappearance of forests is referred to as deforestation.


      Q10. When and where was the Imperial Forest Institute set up?
      When and where Imperial Forest Research Institute was established?
      In which year the Imperial Forest Research Institute was set up at Dehradun?

      Ans. The Imperial Forest Research Institute was set up at Dehradun in 1906.


      Q11. What are sleepers? What are their functions in a railway track?

      Ans. Sleepers are wooden planks laid across railway tracks. They hold the tracks in position.


      Q12. Why were railways essential for the colonial government?

      Ans. Railways were essential for colonial trade and for the movement of imperial troops.


      Q13. Why did oak trees in England disappear?

      Ans. By early 19th century, oak forests were disappearing in England due to constant cutting of trees for oak wood. 


      Q14. Who were known as criminal tribes?
      Who were called the criminal tribes?

      Ans. Some of pastoralist and nomadic communities of the Madras Presidency began to be called criminal tribes.


      Q15. For what purpose did people in the forest use bamboo?
      Why did the people in the forest use bamboo for?

      Ans. Bamboo was used to make excellent fences and is also used to make baskets and umbrellas. 


      Q16. What were the types of crops grown through shifting cultivation?

      Ans. In central India and Africa it could be millets, in Brazil manioc, and in other parts of Latin America maize and beans.


      Q17. Where is Bastar located?

      Ans. Bastar is located in the southernmost part of Chhattisgarh and borders Andhra Pradesh, Orissa and Maharashtra.


      Q18. Who was Gunda Dhur?

      Ans. Gunda Dhur was a tribal leader from village Nethanar. He was an important figure in the movement against British.


      Q19. What is scientific forestry?

      Ans. Scientific forestry is a system of cutting trees controlled by the forest department, in which old trees are cut and new ones planted.


      Q20. What do forests provide us?
      How are forests useful to us?

      Ans. Forests provide bamboo, wood for fuel, grass, charcoal, packaging, fruits, flowers, animals, birds and many other things.


      Q21. Which common feature is found in the Amazon forest and the Western Ghats?

      Ans. In the Amazon forests or in the Western Ghats, it is possible to find as many as 500 different plant species in one forest patch.


      Q22. Name the plantation for which large areas of India's natural forest were cleared. 

      Ans. Large areas of natural forests were cleared to make way for tea, coffee and rubber plantations.


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