Q39. Which groups of French society benefited from the
revolution? Which groups were forced to relinquish power? Which sections of
society would have been disappointed with the outcome of the revolution?
Ans. It was the richer members of the third estate who
mostly benefited from the revolution. The clergy and nobility were forced to relinquish
their power. The poor class of the third estate and women would have been
disappointed with the outcome of the revolution.
Q40. Define the following: Livre, Clergy, Tithe and Taille
Ans. Livre -
of currency in France, discontinued in 1794
Group of persons invested with special functions in the church
A tax levied by the church, comprising one-tenth of the agricultural produce
Tax to be paid directly to the state
Q41. Draw up a list of democratic rights we enjoy today whose
origins could be traced to the French Revolution.
Ans. Some of the democratic rights that we enjoy today
whose origins could be traced to the French Revolution are as follows:
Right to Equality
Right to freedom of speech and expression
Right against exploitation
Right to constitutional remedies
Q42. Why were the representatives of third estate disappointed
with the pattern of voting in the Estate General?
Voting in the Estates General in the past had been conducted according to the
principle that each estate had one vote. This time too Louis XVI was determined
to continue the same practice. But members of the third estate demanded that
voting now be conducted by the assembly as a whole, where each member would
have one vote.
Q43. Analyze the three main social causes leading to outbreak of
the revolutionary protest in France.
Describe the social conditions that led to the outbreak of
Ans. Social causes
French society in the eighteenth century
was divided into three estates, and only members of the third estate paid
About 60 per cent of the land was owned by
nobles, the Church and other richer members of the third estate.
The nobles further enjoyed feudal
privileges. These included feudal dues, which they extracted from the peasants.
Q44. “Robespierre’s rule in France was known as the Reign of
terror.” Justify the statement.
Explain the policy of severe control and punishment followed by
Robespierre in France.
Ans. The period from 1793 to 1794 is referred to as
the Reign of Terror. Robespierre followed a policy of severe control and
punishment. All those whom he saw as being enemies of the republic ex-nobles and clergy,
members of other political parties, even members of his own party who did not
agree with his methods were arrested, imprisoned and then tried by a revolutionary
tribunal. If the court found them guilty
Q45. Describe the legacy of the French Revolution for the
peoples of the world during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.
Analyze the impact of the French Revolution over Europe and
other parts of the world.
What was the impact of the French Revolution on the world? Name
two Indians who were very much influenced by the revolutionary France.
Ans. The ideas of liberty and democratic rights were
the most important legacy of the French Revolution. These spread from France to
the rest of Europe during the nineteenth century, where feudal systems were
abolished. Colonised peoples reworked the idea of freedom from bondage into
their movements to create a sovereign nation state. Tipu Sultan and Rammohan
Roy are two examples of individuals who responded to the ideas coming from
Q46. Explain the composition of the French society during late
How was the system of Estates in France society organized?
How was the system of Estates in French Society organized? Who constituted
the middle class in the French Society in the 18th century?
Ans. French society in the eighteenth century was
divided into three estates:
Estate: Clergy (Clergy were the group of persons invested
with special functions in the church)
Estate: It was further divided into three categories.
Big businessmen, merchants, court
officials, lawyers etc.
Peasants and artisans
Small peasants, landless labour, servants
Q47. Would you agree with the view that the message of universal
rights was beset with contradictions? Explain.
Ans. The message of universal rights was beset with
contradictions. Not all citizens, however, had the right to vote. Only men
above 25 years of age who paid taxes equal to at least 3 days of a labourer’s wage were given the status of active
citizens, that is, they were entitled to vote. The remaining men and all women
were classed as passive citizens. To qualify as an elector and then as a member
of the Assembly, a man had to belong to the highest bracket of taxpayers.