Ans. It was the richer members of the third estate who mostly benefited from the revolution. The clergy and nobility were forced to relinquish their power. The poor class of the third estate and women would have been disappointed with the outcome of the revolution.
Ans. Livre - Unit of currency in France, discontinued in 1794
Clergy - Group of persons invested with special functions in the church
Tithe - A tax levied by the church, comprising one-tenth of the agricultural produce
Taille - Tax to be paid directly to the state
Ans. Some of the democratic rights that we enjoy today whose origins could be traced to the French Revolution are as follows:
i. Right to Equality
ii. Right to freedom of speech and expression
iii. Right against exploitation
iv. Right to constitutional remedies
Ans. Voting in the Estates General in the past had been conducted according to the principle that each estate had one vote. This time too Louis XVI was determined to continue the same practice. But members of the third estate demanded that voting now be conducted by the assembly as a whole, where each member would have one vote.
Ans. Social causes
i. French society in the eighteenth century was divided into three estates, and only members of the third estate paid taxes.
ii. About 60 per cent of the land was owned by nobles, the Church and other richer members of the third estate.
iii. The nobles further enjoyed feudal privileges. These included feudal dues, which they extracted from the peasants.
Ans. The period from 1793 to 1794 is referred to as the Reign of Terror. Robespierre followed a policy of severe control and punishment. All those whom he saw as being enemies of the republic ex-nobles and clergy, members of other political parties, even members of his own party who did not agree with his methods were arrested, imprisoned and then tried by a revolutionary tribunal. If the court found them guilty they were guillotined.
Ans. The ideas of liberty and democratic rights were the most important legacy of the French Revolution. These spread from France to the rest of Europe during the nineteenth century, where feudal systems were abolished. Colonised peoples reworked the idea of freedom from bondage into their movements to create a sovereign nation state. Tipu Sultan and Rammohan Roy are two examples of individuals who responded to the ideas coming from revolutionary France.
Ans. French society in the eighteenth century was divided into three estates:
First Estate: Clergy (Clergy were the group of persons invested with special functions in the church)
Second Estate: Nobility
Third Estate: It was further divided into three categories.
i. Big businessmen, merchants, court officials, lawyers etc.
ii. Peasants and artisans
iii. Small peasants, landless labour, servants
Ans. The message of universal rights was beset with contradictions. Not all citizens, however, had the right to vote. Only men above 25 years of age who paid taxes equal to at least 3 days of a labourer’s wage were given the status of active citizens, that is, they were entitled to vote. The remaining men and all women were classed as passive citizens. To qualify as an elector and then as a member of the Assembly, a man had to belong to the highest bracket of taxpayers.
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