Topic outline

    • Nazism and the Rise of Hitler

      Q62. ‘The media glorified trench life’. What was the actual truth about trench life?
      ‘The media glorified trench life’. Explain
      What was the truth behind the trench life which was glorified by the media?

      Ans. The media glorified trench life. The truth, however, was that soldiers lived miserable lives in these trenches, trapped with rats feeding on corpses. They faced poisonous gas and enemy shelling, and witnessed their ranks reduce rapidly.


      Q63. Why was Hitler interested in the youth of the country?

      Ans. Hitler was fanatically interested in the youth of the country. He felt that a strong Nazi society could be established only by teaching children Nazi ideology. This required a control over the child both inside and outside school.


      Q64. What was the distinguishing mark which all Jews had to wear from September 1941 and why? 

      Ans. From September 1941, all Jews had to wear a yellow Star of David on their breasts so that they can be segregated from German population. This identity mark was stamped on their passport, all legal documents and houses.


      Q65. Name the party renamed by Hitler.
      Which is the party renamed by Hitler?

      Ans. In 1919, he joined a small group called the German Workers Party. Hitler subsequently took over the organisation and renamed it the National Socialist German Workers Party. This party came to be known as the Nazi Party.


      Q66. Why was the Weimar Republic not received well by its own people?
      Why was the Weimar Republic not liked by the German people?

      Ans. Weimar Republic was not received well by its own people largely because of the terms it was forced to accept after Germanys defeat at the end of the First World War. The peace treaty at Versailles with the Allies was a harsh and humiliating peace.


      Q67. How were the polish children treated by the Nazis?

      Ans. Polish children who looked like Aryans were forcibly snatched from their mothers and examined by race experts. If they passed the race tests they were raised in German families and if not, they were deposited in orphanages where most perished.


      Q68. How did Nazism become a mass movement?

      Ans. Nazism became a mass movement. As, after 1929, banks collapsed and businesses shut down, workers lost their jobs and the middle classes were threatened with destitution. In such a situation Nazi propaganda stirred hopes of a better future. By 1932, it had become the largest party with 37 per cent votes.


      Q69. What was general government in Poland?

      Ans. Occupied Poland was divided up. Much of north-western Poland was annexed to Germany. Poles were forced to leave their homes and properties behind to be occupied by ethnic Germans brought in from occupied Europe. Poles were then herded like cattle in the other part called the General Government, the destination of all undesirables of the empire.


      Q70. How did Hitler follow the slogan of 'one people, one empire and one leader'?

      Ans. Hitler pulled out of the League of Nations in 1933, reoccupied the Rhineland in 1936, and integrated Austria and Germany in 1938 under the slogan, One people, One empire, and One leader. He then went on to wrest German-speaking Sudentenland from Czechoslovakia, and gobbled up the entire country. 


      Q71. What was the fire decree of 28 February 1933?
      Write a note on the fire decree of 1933 in Germany.

      Ans. Having acquired power, Hitler set out to dismantle the structures of democratic rule. A mysterious fire that broke out in the German Parliament building in February facilitated his move. The Fire Decree of 28 February 1933 indefinitely suspended civic rights like freedom of speech, press and assembly that had been guaranteed by the Weimar constitution.


      Q72. What was Enabling Act of 1933?
      Write a short note on Enabling Act of 1933.
      What was the Enabling Act and when was it passed?

      Ans. On 3 March 1933, the famous Enabling Act was passed. This Act established dictatorship in Germany. It gave Hitler all powers to sideline Parliament and rule by decree. All political parties and trade unions were banned except for the Nazi Party and its affiliates. The state established complete control over the economy, media, army and judiciary.


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