Nazism and the Rise of Hitler
Q46. What was the war guilt clause in the Treaty of Versailles?
Ans. The War Guilt Clause held Germany responsible for the war and damages the Allied countries suffered.
Q47. What was produced under the project of state funded work creation programme?
Ans. This project produced the famous German superhighways and the people’s car, the Volkswagen.
Q48. Name the country occupied by Germany under the slogan, one people, one empire, one leader.
Ans. Hitler integrated Austria and Germany in 1938 under the slogan, One people, One empire, and One leader.
Q49. What steps were taken by the French when Germany refused to pay its gold reserves in 1923?
What happened when Germany refused to pay war reparation to France?
How did the French react when Germany did not pay the reparations in gold in 1923?
Ans. In 1923 Germany refused to pay, and the French occupied its leading industrial area, Ruhr, to claim their coal.
Q50. How were the deputies elected under the Weimar Constitution?
How were deputies elected to the German Parliament or Reichstag?
Ans. Deputies were elected to the German Parliament or Reichstag, on the basis of equal and universal votes cast by all adults including women.
Q51. How was Hitler projected by the Nazi propaganda?
Ans. Nazi propaganda skillfully projected Hitler as a messiah, a saviour, as someone who had arrived to deliver people from their distress.
Q52. Explain the term concentration camp.
Ans. Concentration camp was a camp where people were isolated and detained without due process of law. Typically, it was surrounded by electrified barbed wire fences.
Q53. What were the ghettos?
Ans. Until medieval times Jews were barred from owning land. They survived mainly through trade and moneylending. They lived in separately marked areas called ghettos.
Q54. When did President Hindenburg offer chancellorship to Hitler? How did he use his power?
Ans. On 30 January 1933, President Hindenburg offered the Chancellorship, the highest position in the cabinet of ministers, to Hitler. Having acquired power, Hitler set out to dismantle the structures of democratic rule.
Q55. Who was Helmuth?
Ans. Helmuth was a little eleven-year-old German boy who overheard his parent’s discussion on whether the entire family or his father should commit suicide alone.
Q56. What was the attitude of the Allied Powers at the Nuremberg Tribunal?
Ans. The Nuremberg Tribunal sentenced only eleven leading Nazis to death. Many others were imprisoned for life. The Allies did not want to be as harsh on defeated Germany as they had been after the First World War.
Q57. Why was an International Military Tribunal set up at Nuremberg after the Second World War?
Briefly describe the role of International Military Tribunal set up at Nuremberg after the Second World War.
State the reasons of setting up an International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg.
What did the International Military Tribunal do?
Ans. At the end of the war, an International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg was set up to prosecute Nazi war criminals for Crimes against Peace, for War Crimes and Crimes Against Humanity.
Q58. Why was the attack on Soviet Union by Germany, a historic blunder?
Why Hitler attack on the Soviet Union in 1941 regarded as a historic blunder?
Why was Hitler's attack to Russia known as historical blunder?
What was regarded as Hitler's historic blunder?
Ans. Hitler attacked the Soviet Union in June 1941. This attack was a historic blunder because it exposed the German western front to British aerial bombing and the eastern front to the powerful Soviet armies.
Q59. Who was assigned the responsibility of economic recovery by Hitler?
Who was given the responsibility of economic recovery by Hitler? What was his aim?
Ans. Hitler assigned the responsibility of economic recovery to the economist Hjalmar Schacht who aimed at full production and full employment through a state-funded work-creation programme.
Q60. Why did the England provide an unspoken support to German's foreign policy?
Ans. German had the unspoken support of England, which had considered the Versailles verdict too harsh. These quick successes at home and abroad seemed to reverse the destiny of the country.
Q61. Who were mockingly called November Criminals?
Who were called the November criminals? Why?
Ans. Those who supported the Weimar Republic, mainly Socialists, Catholics and Democrats, became easy targets of attack in the conservative nationalist circles. They were mockingly called the November criminals.