## Topic outline

• ### Globe - Latitudes and Longitudes

##### Q17. How do grid of the parallels of latitude and meridians of longitude on the globe help in locating the place?

Ans. We can locate any point on the globe very easily if we know its latitude and longitude. For example, Dhubri in Assam is situated at 26° N latitude and 90° E longitude. The point where these two lines cut each other is the location of Dhubri.

##### Q18. What two imaginary lines divide the earth into hemispheres?

Ans. Any circle drawn around the Earth divides it into two equal halves called hemispheres. There are generally considered to be four hemispheres: Northern, Southern, Eastern, and Western. The Equator, or line of 0 degrees latitude, divides the Earth into the Northern and Southern hemispheres.

##### Q19. What are parallels of latitude and meridians of longitude?

Ans. Parallels of Latitude - All parallel circles from the equator up to the poles are called parallels of latitudes. Latitudes are measured in degrees.

Meridians of Longitude - Meridians of longitude are drawn from the North Pole to the South Pole and are at right angles to the Equator.

##### Q20. What are the five major parallels of latitude?

Ans. Five major parallels of latitude are:

i.        The equator (0°)

ii.        Tropic of Cancer (23­.5° N) in the Northern Hemisphere

iii.        Tropic of Capricorn (23.5­° S) in the Southern Hemisphere

iv.        Arctic Circle at 66­.5° north of the equator

v.        Antarctic Circle at 66.5­° south of the equator

##### Q21. How would you describe a globe?

Ans. Globe is a true model (miniature form) of the earth. A needle is fixed through the globe in a tilted manner, which is called its axis. Two points on the globe through which the needle passes are two poles – North Pole and South Pole. The globe can be moved around this needle from west to east just as the earth moves.

##### Q22. Write a note on Frigid Zones.

Ans. Areas lying between the Arctic Circle and the North Pole in the Northern Hemisphere and the Antarctic Circle and the South Pole in the Southern Hemisphere, are very cold. It is because here the sun does not rise much above the horizon. Therefore, its rays are always slanting and provide less heat. These are, therefore, called Frigid Zones (very cold).

##### Q23. Write a note on Temperate Zones.

Ans. The angle of the sun’s rays goes on decreasing towards the poles. As such, the areas bounded by the Tropic of Cancer and the Arctic Circle in the

Northern Hemisphere, and the Tropic of Capricorn and the Antarctic Circle in the Southern Hemisphere, have moderate temperatures. These are, therefore, called Temperate Zones.

##### Q24. Differentiate between meridians of longitude and parallels of latitude.

Ans. Difference between meridians of longitude and parallels of latitude

 Meridians of Longitude Parallels of Latitude 1. Meridians of longitude are drawn from the North Pole to the South Pole and are at right angles to the Equator. 1. All parallel circles from the equator up to the poles are called parallels of latitudes. 2. All meridians are of equal length. 2. All parallels are not of equal length.

##### Q25. What are the advantages of globe?

i.        Globes may be of varying size and type – big ones, which cannot be carried easily, small pocket globes, and globe-like balloons, which can be inflated and are handy and carried with ease.

ii.        The globe is not fixed. It can be rotated the same way as a top spin or a potter’s wheel is rotated.

iii.        On the globe, countries, continents and oceans are shown in their correct size.

##### Q26. Differentiate between north latitude and south latitude.

Ans. Difference between north latitude and south latitude

 North Latitude South Latitude 1. All parallels north of the equator are called ‘north latitudes’. 1. All parallels south of the equator are called ‘south latitudes’. 2. The value of north latitude is indicated by the letter ‘N’. 2. The value of south latitude is indicated by the letter ‘S’. 3. Example - Chandrapur in Maharashtra (India) is situated at 20° N latitude. 3. Example – Belo Horizonte in Brazil (South America) is situated at 20° S latitude.