Q37. What benefits does Sudha get along with her salary?
Being a permanent worker she also gets other benefits such as the following:
for old age: A part of her salary is kept in a fund
with the government. She will earn interest on these savings. When she retires
from this job she will get this money in the form of pension.
gets off on Sundays and national holidays. She also gets some days as annual
facilities for her family: Her company pays the medical
expenses up to a certain amount for her and her family members. She gets
medical leave if she falls ill and her salary is not cut if she takes this
Q38. Would you say that domestic workers like housemaids are also
casual workers? Why? Describe the workday of one such woman detailing the work
she does in other peoples' houses?
Yes, domestic workers like housemaids are also casual workers because
They work for very long hours.
They don’t have job security. They
are at the will of their employer.
They are paid less.
They don’t get other benefits such as
provident funds, holidays, allowance etc.
know such woman who works as domestic help in my neighbourhood. Her name is
Anita. She has been there for past three years. Her day usually starts at 5
O'clock in the morning. She does each and every household works. She takes care
of everything. She cooks food, washes clothes, cleans the house etc. She goes
to bed at 11 O'clock. She earns Rupees 5000 per month.
Q39. Describe the working conditions of people like Nirmala
keeping in mind the following: working hours, conditions in the workplace,
earnings, and the days of work available.
Nirmala works as a tailor in an export garment unit. The factory where she works
makes summer clothes for people in foreign countries like U.S.A., U.K., Germany
and the Netherlands.
Hours – She has to work for very long hours in the months
from December to April. A normal working day begins at 9 a.m. and finishes only
by 10 p.m., sometimes even later. She works for six days a week. At times when
the work needs to be done urgently, she works on Sundays, too.
in the workplace – Her job is not permanent. If workers
complain about their pay or working conditions they are asked to leave. There
is no job security or protection if there is ill treatment. They are also expected
to work very long hours.
Nirmala is paid Rs 80 a day for eight hours and Rs 40 extra for working late.
days of work available - Most workers, like Nirmala, are employed
on what is known as casual basis i.e. they are required to come
as and when the employer needs them. They are employed when the employer gets
large orders or during certain seasons. At other times of the year they have to
find some other work.
Q40. Complete the following table and discuss how their work is
Q41. Fill in the following table to show the services provided
by people in the markets which you visit frequently.