Topic outline

    • Urban Livelihoods

      Q37. What benefits does Sudha get along with her salary?

      Ans. Being a permanent worker she also gets other benefits such as the following:

      Savings for old age: A part of her salary is kept in a fund with the government. She will earn interest on these savings. When she retires from this job she will get this money in the form of pension.

      Holidays: She gets off on Sundays and national holidays. She also gets some days as annual leave.

      Medical facilities for her family: Her company pays the medical expenses up to a certain amount for her and her family members. She gets medical leave if she falls ill and her salary is not cut if she takes this leave.

      Q38. Would you say that domestic workers like housemaids are also casual workers? Why? Describe the workday of one such woman detailing the work she does in other peoples' houses?

      Ans. Yes, domestic workers like housemaids are also casual workers because

              1.   They work for very long hours.

              2.   They don’t have job security. They are at the will of their employer.

              3.   They are paid less.

              4.   They don’t get other benefits such as provident funds, holidays, allowance etc.

      I know such woman who works as domestic help in my neighbourhood. Her name is Anita. She has been there for past three years. Her day usually starts at 5 O'clock in the morning. She does each and every household works. She takes care of everything. She cooks food, washes clothes, cleans the house etc. She goes to bed at 11 O'clock. She earns Rupees 5000 per month.

      Q39. Describe the working conditions of people like Nirmala keeping in mind the following: working hours, conditions in the workplace, earnings, and the days of work available.

      Ans. Nirmala works as a tailor in an export garment unit. The factory where she works makes summer clothes for people in foreign countries like U.S.A., U.K., Germany and the Netherlands.

      Working Hours – She has to work for very long hours in the months from December to April. A normal working day begins at 9 a.m. and finishes only by 10 p.m., sometimes even later. She works for six days a week. At times when the work needs to be done urgently, she works on Sundays, too.

      Conditions in the workplace – Her job is not permanent. If workers complain about their pay or working conditions they are asked to leave. There is no job security or protection if there is ill treatment. They are also expected to work very long hours.

      Earnings - Nirmala is paid Rs 80 a day for eight hours and Rs 40 extra for working late.

      The days of work available - Most workers, like Nirmala, are employed on what is known as casual basis i.e. they are required to come as and when the employer needs them. They are employed when the employer gets large orders or during certain seasons. At other times of the year they have to find some other work.

      Q40. Complete the following table and discuss how their work is different:


      Q41. Fill in the following table to show the services provided by people in the markets which you visit frequently.


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