Topic outline

    • Urban Livelihoods

      Q19. Write characteristics of business persons?

      Ans. Most businesspersons manage their own shops or business. They are not employed by anyone. But, they do employ a number of other workers as supervisors and helpers.


      Q20. Why did Bachchu Manjhi come to the city?

      Ans. Bachchu Manjhi worked as a mason in his village. In the village he did not get masonry work regularly. The income that he earned was not enough for his family. So, he came to the city in search of work.

      Q21. What are the drawbacks of casual jobs?

      Ans. There is no job security or protection in casual job. If workers complain about their pay or working conditions they are asked to leave. They are paid less and expected to work for very long hours.


      Q22. What is a call centre?

      Ans. A Call Centre is a centralised office that deals with problems and questions that consumers/customers have regarding goods purchased and services like banking, ticket booking, etc.


      Q23. How do people earn their livelihood in the urban areas?

      Ans. People of urban areas are engaged in different activities. Some are rickshaw pullers, some are vendors, some are business persons, some are shopkeepers, some works in call centres, some works in office etc.


      Q24. What do street vendors usually sell?

      Ans. Vendors sell things that are often prepared at home by their families who purchase, clean, sort and make them ready to sell. For example, those who sell food or snacks on the street, prepare most of these at home.

      Q25. Discuss the problems faced by the vendors.

      Ans. Their shops are usually temporary structures. They can be asked to dismantle their shops at any time by the police. They have no security. There are certain parts of the city where these hawkers are not allowed to enter.


      Q26. Bachchu Manjhi has to think twice before taking a day off from work. Why?

      Ans. Bachchu Manjhi is a Cycle-Rickshaw Puller. He earns between Rs. 80-100 every day, out of which he spend Rs. 50-60 on food and rent. The rest he saves for his family. If he takes off, he will not able to earn money for himself and his family.


      Q27. What are normal working hours in a garment factory?

      Ans. Workers have to work for very long hours in the months from December to April. A normal working day begins at 9 a.m. and finishes only by 10 p.m., sometimes even later. Workers work for six days a week. At times when the work needs to be done urgently, they work on Sundays, too.


      Q28. Why government is thinking about modifying the law that banned street vendors?

      Ans. The government is thinking about modifying the law that banned street vendors, so that they have a place to work and that there is also a free flow of traffic and people. Hawking zones have been suggested for towns and cities. It has also been suggested that mobile vendors should be allowed to move around freely.

      Q29. What are the differences between those who sell on the street and those in the market?

      Ans. Difference

      who sell on the street

      who sell in the market

      1. They buy things from local market.

      1. They buy things from the bigger towns or the manufacturing cities.

      2. They don’t need licence to do business.

      2. They need licence to do business.

      3. Shops on the street are temporary.

      3. Shops in the market are permanent.


      Q30. How do people working on the street manage their work?

      Ans. They work on their own. They are not employed by anyone and therefore have to organise their own work. They have to plan how much to purchase, as well as where and how to set up their shops. Their shops are usually temporary structures: sometimes just some boards or papers spread over discarded box or maybe a canvas sheet hung up on a few poles. They may also use their own carts or simply a plastic sheet spread on the pavement.


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