Gathering to Growing Food
Q22. Why people began using
People began using pots for cooking food, especially grains like rice, wheat and
lentils that now became an important part of the diet.
Q23. Write about the houses
Finds at Mehrgarh includes remains of square or rectangular houses. Each house
had four or more compartments, some of which may have been used for storage.
Q24. Write about the cultural
traditions of the tribal community.
Tribes have rich and unique cultural traditions, including their own language,
music, stories and paintings. They also have their own gods and goddesses.
Q25. Why farmers grow some crops in some areas and not in other
grow some crops in some areas and not in other areas because different plants grow
in different conditions — rice, for example, requires more water than wheat and
Q26. Describe the pit houses found at Burzahom.
Burzahom (in present-day Kashmir) people built pit-houses, which were dug into
the ground, with steps leading into them. These may have provided shelter in
Q27. Name some important
sites where archaeologists have found evidence of farmers and herders.
are found all over the subcontinent. Some of the most important ones are in the
north-west, in present-day Kashmir, and in east and south India.
Q28. Why do people who grow crops have to stay in the same place
for a long time?
people began growing plants, it meant that they had to stay in the same place
for a long time looking after the plants, watering, weeding, driving away
animals and birds — till the grain ripened.
Q29. What do
you know about the ‘burials’ found at Mehrgarh?
When people die, their relatives and friends generally pay respect to them.
People look after them, perhaps in the belief that there is some form of life after
death. Burial is one such arrangement. Several burial sites have been found at
Mehrgarh. In one instance, the dead person was buried with goats, which were probably
meant to serve as food in the next world.
Q30. Why do archaeologists think that many people who lived in
Mehrgarh were hunters to start with and that herding became more important
who excavated the site found evidence of many kinds of animal bones from the earliest
levels. These included bones of wild animals such as the deer and pig. In later
levels, they found more bones of sheep and goat, and in still later levels,
cattle bones are most common, suggesting that this was the animal that was generally
kept by the people.
Q31. How do scientists find
out whether the discovered sites were settlements of farmers and herders?
Scientists study evidence of plants and animal bones. One of the most exciting
finds includes remains of burnt grain. (These may have been burnt accidentally
or on purpose). Scientists can identify these grains, and so we know that a
number of crops were grown in different parts of the subcontinent. They can
also identify the bones of different animals.
Q32. Enumerate upon the
archaeological findings at Mehrgarh.
The archaeological findings at Mehrgarh are:
Archaeologists who excavated the site found
evidence of many kinds of animal bones from the earliest levels. These included
bones of wild animals such as the deer and pig.
In later levels, they found more bones of
sheep and goat.
In still later levels, cattle bones are
Q33. Describe tools used by
farmers and herders.
Stone tools have been found from many sites as well. Many of these are
different from the earlier Palaeolithic tools and that is why they are called Neolithic.
These include tools that were polished to give a fine cutting edge, and mortars
and pestles used for grinding grain and other plant produce. Mortars and pestles
are used for grinding grain even today, several thousand years later.