Ans. Impacts of the changes in climate that took place around 12,000 years ago are:
i. Development of grasslands.
ii. Increase in the number of deer, antelope, goat, sheep and cattle, i.e. animals that survived on grass.
iii. People started thinking about herding and rearing these animals.
iv. Several grain bearing grasses, including wheat, barley and rice grew naturally in different parts of the subcontinent.
v. People started thinking about growing plants on their own.
Ans. Stone tools were probably made using two different techniques:
1. The first is called stone on stone: Here, the pebble from which the tool was to be made (also called the core) was held in one hand. Another stone, which was used as a hammer was held in the other hand. The second stone was used to strike off flakes from the first, till the required shape was obtained.
2. Pressure flaking: Here the core was placed on a firm surface. The hammer stone was used on a piece of bone or stone that was placed on the core, to remove flakes that could be shaped into tools.
Ans. Palaeolithic period - This comes from two Greek words, ‘palaeo’, meaning old, and ‘lithos’, meaning stone. The name points to the importance of finds of stone tools. The Palaeolithic period extends from 2 million years ago to about 12,000 years ago.
Mesolithic period - The period when we find environmental changes, beginning about 12,000 years ago till about 10,000 years ago is called the Mesolithic (middle stone).
Neolithic period – The period from about 10,000 years ago, is known as the Neolithic.
Ans. There are four reasons why hunter gatherers moved from place to place.
First, if they had stayed at one place for a long time, they would have eaten up all the available plant and animal resources. Therefore, they would have had to go elsewhere in search of food.
Second, animals move from place to place — either in search of smaller prey, or, in the case of deer and wild cattle, in search of grass and leaves. That is why those who hunted them had to follow their movements.
Third, plants and trees bear fruit in different seasons. So, people may have moved from season to season in search of different kinds of plants.
Fourth, people, plants and animals need water to survive. Water is found in lakes, streams and rivers. While many rivers and lakes are perennial (with water throughout the year) others are seasonal. People living on their banks would have had to go in search of water during the dry seasons (winter and summer). Besides, people may have travelled to meet their friends and relatives. They travelled on foot.
However, now days we travel for different purposes like education, work, business, entertainment.
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