The Trail of the Earliest People
Q33. List the impact of the changes in climate that took place
around 12,000 years ago.
Impacts of the changes in climate that took place around 12,000 years ago are:
Development of grasslands.
Increase in the number of deer, antelope,
goat, sheep and cattle, i.e. animals that survived on grass.
People started thinking about herding and
rearing these animals.
Several grain bearing grasses, including
wheat, barley and rice grew naturally in different parts of the subcontinent.
People started thinking about growing
plants on their own.
Q34. How stone tools were made?
Stone tools were probably made using two different techniques:
The first is called stone on stone: Here, the pebble from which the tool
was to be made (also called the core) was held in one hand. Another stone,
which was used as a hammer was held in the other hand. The second stone was
used to strike off flakes from the first, till the required shape was obtained.
Pressure flaking: Here the core was placed on a firm surface. The hammer
stone was used on a piece of bone or stone that was placed on the core, to remove
flakes that could be shaped into tools.
Q35. Write a short note on Palaeolithic period, Mesolithic
period and Neolithic period.
Palaeolithic period - This comes from two Greek words, ‘palaeo’, meaning
old, and ‘lithos’, meaning stone. The name points to the importance of finds of
stone tools. The Palaeolithic period extends from 2 million years ago to about 12,000
period - The period when we find environmental changes,
beginning about 12,000 years ago till about 10,000 years ago is called the
Mesolithic (middle stone).
period – The period from about 10,000 years ago, is known as
Q36. Why did the hunter-gatherers travel from place to place? In
what ways are these similar to/different from the reasons for which we travel
are four reasons why hunter gatherers moved from place to place.
First, if they had stayed at one
place for a long time, they would have eaten up all the available plant and
animal resources. Therefore, they would have had to go elsewhere in search of
Second, animals move from place to
place — either in search of smaller prey, or, in the case of deer and wild
cattle, in search of grass and leaves. That is why those who hunted them had to
follow their movements.
Third, plants and trees bear fruit
in different seasons. So, people may have moved from season to season in search
of different kinds of plants.
Fourth, people, plants and animals
need water to survive. Water is found in lakes, streams and rivers. While many
rivers and lakes are perennial (with water throughout the year) others are
seasonal. People living on their banks would have had to go in search of water
during the dry seasons (winter and summer). Besides, people may have travelled
to meet their friends and relatives. They travelled on foot.
However, now days we travel
for different purposes like education, work, business, entertainment.