Paintings and Books
Q35. What is the Mahabharata all
Mahabharata is about a war fought between the Kauravas and Pandavas, who were
cousins. This was a war to gain control of the throne of the Kurus,
and their capital, Hastinapur. The story itself was an old one, but was written
down in the form in which we know it today, about 1500 years ago. The
Mahabharata are supposed to have been compiled by Vyasa. The Bhagavad Gita was
also included in the Mahabharata.
Q36. What do you know about iron
pillar at Mehrauli?
Iron pillar at Mehrauli
The iron pillar at Mehrauli, Delhi, is a
remarkable example of the skill of Indian crafts persons.
It is made of iron, 7.2. m high, and weighs
over 3 tonnes.
It was made about 1500 years ago. We know
the date because there is an inscription on the pillar mentioning a ruler named
Chandra, who probably belonged to the Gupta dynasty.
Q37. Who was Aryabhatta? What was
he known for?
was a mathematician and astronomer, wrote a book in Sanskrit known as the
He stated that day and night were caused by
the rotation of the earth on its axis, even though it seems as if the sun is
rising and setting every day.
He developed a scientific explanation for
eclipses as well.
He also found a way of calculating the
circumference of a circle, which is nearly as accurate as the formula we use
Q38. Highlight the chief features of stupa architecture.
Features of stupa architecture
Generally, there is a small box placed at
the centre or heart of the stupa. This may contain bodily remains of the Buddha
or his followers, or things they used, as well as precious stones, and coins.
Often, a path, known as the pradakshina
patha, was laid around the stupa. This was surrounded with railings.
Entrance to the path was through gateways.
Both railings and gateways were often
decorated with sculpture.
Q39. What are main features of the
Hindu temples built around 1800 years ago?
Main features of the Hindu temples
Deities such as Vishnu, Shiva, and Durga
were worshipped in these shrines. The most important part of the temple was the
room known as the garbhagriha, where the image of the chief deity was placed.
It was here that priests performed
religious rituals, and devotees offered worship to the deity.
Often, as at Bhitargaon, a tower, known as
the shikhara, was built on top of the garbhagriha, to mark this out as a sacred
Most temples also had a space known as the
mandapa. It was a hall where people could assemble.