Villages, Thriving Towns
Q19. Why the earliest coins which
were in use for about 500 years were called punch marked coins?
They have been given this name because the designs were punched on to the metal
— silver or copper.
Q20. Why some of the earliest works in Tamil, known as Sangam
texts were called Sangam because they were supposed to have been composed and
compiled in assemblies (known as sangams) of poets that were held in the city
Q21. List all the women who could
be employed by the superintendent.
young women who are differently abled, nuns, mothers of courtesans, retired
women servants of the king, women who have retired from service in temples, may
by the superintendent.
Q22. What kinds of inscription
have been found in Mathura?
Generally, these are short inscriptions, recording gifts made by men (and
sometimes women) to monasteries and shrines. These were made by kings and
queens, officers, merchants, and crafts persons who lived in the city.
Q23. Who lived in the village?
were at least three different kinds of people living in most villages in the
southern and northern parts of the subcontinent. In the Tamil region, large landowners
were known as vellalar, ordinary ploughmen were known as uzhavar, and landless
labourers, including slaves, were known as kadaisiyar and adimai.
Q24. What are the ways of finding
out about early cities?
of finding out about early cities are:
Sculptors carved scenes depicting peoples’
lives in towns and villages, as well as in the forest.
Archaeologists’ findings such as found rows
of pots, or ceramic rings arranged one on top of the other.
Accounts of sailors and travellers who
Q25. What has been found in the archaeological
excavations at Arikamedu?
Findings in the archaeological excavations at Arikamedu
A massive brick structure, which may have
been a warehouse, was found at the site.
Other finds include pottery from the
Mediterranean region, such as amphorae and stamped red-glazed pottery, known as
Arretine Ware, which was named after a city in Italy.
Roman lamps, glassware and gems have also
been found at the site.
Q26. What were the functions performed by Shrenis?
performed by Shrenis were:
shrenis of crafts persons provided training, procured raw material, and
distributed the finished product.
shrenis of merchants organised the trade.
also served as banks, where rich men and women deposited money. This was
invested, and part of the interest was returned or used to support religious
institutions such as monasteries.
Q27. Mathura has been an important settlement for more than 2500
years. Give reasons.
It was important because it was located at
the cross roads of two major routes of travel and trade — from the northwest to
the east and from north to south.
There were fortifications around the city,
and several shrines.
Farmers and herders from adjoining areas provided
food for people in the city.
Mathura was also a centre where some
extremely fine sculpture was produced.
Q28. Write a short note on Grama Bhojaka.
In the northern part of the country, the
village headman was known as the grama bhojaka.
Usually, men from the same family held the
position for generations. In other words, the post was hereditary.
The grama bhojaka was often the largest
Generally, he had slaves and hired workers
to cultivate the land.
Besides, as he was powerful, the king often
used him to collect taxes from the village.
He also functioned as a judge, and
sometimes as a policeman.