Topic outline

    • Weather, Climate and Adaptations of Animals to Climate

      Q33. What are the characteristics of the Polar Regions?

      Ans. The Polar Regions present an extreme climate. These regions are covered with snow and it is very cold for most part of the year. For six months the sun does not set at the poles while for the other six months the sun does not rise. In winters, the temperature can be as low as –37°C. Animals living there have adapted to these severe conditions.


      Q34. How weather is a complex phenomenon?

      Ans. The weather is a complex phenomenon as it can vary over very short periods of time. It can happen sometimes that it is sunny in the morning, but suddenly clouds appear from nowhere and it starts raining heavily. Or, a heavy rain may vanish in a matter of minutes and give way to bright sunshine. Since weather is such a complex phenomenon, it is not easy to predict.

      Q35. What are the adaptations of penguins?

      Ans. Adaptations of penguins are:

                               i.        It is white and merges well with the white background. It also has a thick skin and a lot of fat to protect it from cold.

                              ii.        Penguins huddled together. This they do to keep warm.

                             iii.        Penguins are also good swimmers. Their bodies are streamlined and their feet have webs, making them good swimmers.


      Q36. All changes in the weather are caused by the sun. Explain

      Ans. All changes in the weather are caused by the sun. The sun is a huge sphere of hot gases at a very high temperature. The distance of the sun from us is very large. Even then the energy sent out by the sun is so huge that it is the source of all heat and light on the earth. So, the sun is the primary source of energy that causes changes in the weather. Energy absorbed and reflected by the earth’s surface, oceans and the atmosphere play important roles in determining the weather at any place.


      Q37. How tropical rainforest supports wide variety of plants and animals?

      Ans. The tropical region has generally a hot climate because of its location around the equator. Even in the coldest month the temperature is generally higher than about 15°C. During hot summers, the temperature may cross 40°C. Days and nights are almost equal in length throughout the year. These regions get plenty of rainfall. Because of continuous warmth and rain, this region supports wide variety of plants and animals. The major types of animals living in the rainforests are monkeys, apes, gorillas, tigers, elephants, leopards, lizards, snakes, birds and insects.

      Q38. How do elephant living in the tropical rainforest adapt itself?

      Ans. It has adapted to the conditions of rainforests in many remarkable ways. Some of the adaptations are as follows:

                                 i.        It uses its trunk as a nose because of which it has a strong sense of smell. The trunk is also used by it for picking up food.

                                ii.        Moreover, its tusks are modified teeth. These can tear the bark of trees that elephant loves to eat.

                               iii.        Large ears of the elephant help it to hear even very soft sounds. They also help the elephant to keep cool in the hot and humid climate of the rainforest.


      Q39. Explain, with examples, why we find animals of certain kind living in particular climatic conditions?

      Ans. Animals are adapted to survive in the conditions in which they live. Animals living in very cold and hot climate must possess special features to protect themselves against the extreme cold or heat. Features and habits that help animals to adapt to their surroundings are a result of the process of evolution. For example, polar bears are adapted for Polar Regions. Polar bears have white fur so that they are not easily visible in the snowy white background. It protects them from their predators and also helps them in catching their prey. To protect them from extreme cold, they have two thick layers of fur. With these adaptations it will not be possible for polar bears to survive in tropical region where it is hot.

      Q40. Write a short note on Beard ape.

      Ans. Beard Ape

                                i.        The lion-tailed macaque (also called Beard ape) lives in the rainforests of Western Ghats.

                               ii.        Its most outstanding feature is the silver-white mane, which surrounds the head from the cheeks down to its chin.

                              iii.        It is a good climber and spends a major part of its life on the tree.

                              iv.        It feeds mainly on fruits. It also eats seeds, young leaves, stems, flowers and buds.

                               v.        This beard ape also searches for insects under the bark of the trees.

                              vi.        Since it is able to get sufficient food on the trees, it rarely comes down on the ground.