Q60. Who was Dr. B.R. Ambedkar? How did he play a key role in the making of Indian constitution?
What was the role of Dr B.R. Ambedkar in drafting of the Constitution?
Ans. Dr. Ambedkar was the chairman of the Drafting Committee. He played a key role in the making of the Constitution but he had a different understanding of how inequalities could be removed. He often bitterly criticised Mahatma Gandhi and his vision.
Q61. What advantages did Indian constitution makers have unlike South Africa?
Ans. Despite all the difficulties, there was one big advantage for the makers of the Indian Constitution. Unlike South Africa, they did not have to create a consensus about what a democratic India should look like. Much of this consensus had evolved during the freedom struggle.
Q62. Here are some of the guiding values of the Constitution and their meaning. Rewrite them by matching them correctly.
a Sovereign i Government will not favour any religion.
b Republic ii People have the supreme right to make decisions.
c Fraternity iii Head of the state is an elected person.
d Secular iv People should live like brothers and sisters.
(a) Sovereign ii People have the supreme right to make decisions.
(b) Republic iii Head of the state is an elected person.
(c) Fraternity iv People should live like brothers and sisters.
(d) Secular i Government will not favour any religion
Q63. Read the following extract from a conduct book for ‘married women’, published in 1912. ‘God has made the female species delicate and fragile
both physically and emotionally, pitiably incapable of self-defence. They are destined thus by God to remain in male protection – of father, husband and son – all their lives. Women should, therefore, not despair, but feel obliged that they can dedicate themselves to the service of men’. Do you think the values expressed in this para reflected the values underlying our constitution? Or does this go against the constitutional values?
Ans. The given paragraph does not reflect the underlying value in our Constitution. It goes against the constitutional values because the Constitution has provided equal rights to women. They enjoy the right to vote, can take up any job and are paid equal wages for the same work.
Q64. Match the following leaders with their roles in the making of the Constitution:
a Motilal Nehru i President of the Constituent Assembly
b B.R. Ambedkar ii Member of the Constituent Assembly
c Rajendra Prasad iii Chairman of the Drafting Committee
d Sarojini Naidu iv Prepared a Constitution for India in 1
a Motilal Nehru iv Prepared a Constitution for India in 1
b B.R. Ambedkar iii Chairman of the Drafting Committee
c Rajendra Prasad i President of the Constituent Assembly
d Sarojini Naidu ii Member of the Constituent Assembly
Q65. What are called ‘Constituent Assembly Debates’? Why are they important?
What are constituent assembly debates?
Ans. Every document presented and every word spoken in the Constituent Assembly has been recorded and preserved. These are called ‘Constituent Assembly Debates’. These debates provide the rationale behind every provision of the Constitution. These are used to interpret the meaning of the Constitution.
Q66. What does segregation mean in South Africa?
Ans. Blacks were forbidden from living in white areas. They could work in white areas only if they had a permit. Trains, buses, taxis, hotels, hospitals, schools and colleges, libraries, cinema halls, theatres, beaches, swimming pools, public toilets, were all separate for the whites and blacks. This was called segregation.
Q67. What compromises were made by white minority and black majority in South Africa?
Ans. The whites agreed to the principle of majority rule and that of one person one vote. They also agreed to accept some basic rights for the poor and the workers. The blacks agreed that majority rule would not be absolute. They agreed that the majority would not take away the property of the white minority.
Q68. Mention any three changes that were brought about in the Constitution of South Africa after 1994.
Ans. The three changes that were bought in the constitution of South Africa were as follows.
1. Discriminatory laws were repealed.
2. Ban on political parties and restrictions on the media were lifted.
3. After 28 years of imprisonment, Nelson Mandela walked out of the jail as a free man.
Q69. Constitution making is not unique to South Africa. How?
Ans. Constitution making is not unique to South Africa. Every country has diverse groups of people. Their relationship may not have been as bad as that between the whites and the blacks in South Africa. But all over the world people have differences of opinion and interests. Whether democratic or not, most countries in the world need to have these basic rules.