Ans. Dr. Ambedkar was the chairman of the Drafting Committee. He played a key role in the making of the Constitution but he had a different understanding of how inequalities could be removed. He often bitterly criticised Mahatma Gandhi and his vision.
Ans. Despite all the difficulties, there was one big advantage for the makers of the Indian Constitution. Unlike South Africa, they did not have to create a consensus about what a democratic India should look like. Much of this consensus had evolved during the freedom struggle.
(a) Sovereign ii People have the supreme right to make decisions.
(b) Republic iii Head of the state is an elected person.
(c) Fraternity iv People should live like brothers and sisters.
(d) Secular i Government will not favour any religion
Ans. The given paragraph does not reflect the underlying value in our Constitution. It goes against the constitutional values because the Constitution has provided equal rights to women. They enjoy the right to vote, can take up any job and are paid equal wages for the same work.
a Motilal Nehru iv Prepared a Constitution for India in 1
b B.R. Ambedkar iii Chairman of the Drafting Committee
c Rajendra Prasad i President of the Constituent Assembly
d Sarojini Naidu ii Member of the Constituent Assembly
Ans. Every document presented and every word spoken in the Constituent Assembly has been recorded and preserved. These are called ‘Constituent Assembly Debates’. These debates provide the rationale behind every provision of the Constitution. These are used to interpret the meaning of the Constitution.
Ans. Blacks were forbidden from living in white areas. They could work in white areas only if they had a permit. Trains, buses, taxis, hotels, hospitals, schools and colleges, libraries, cinema halls, theatres, beaches, swimming pools, public toilets, were all separate for the whites and blacks. This was called segregation.
Ans. The whites agreed to the principle of majority rule and that of one person one vote. They also agreed to accept some basic rights for the poor and the workers. The blacks agreed that majority rule would not be absolute. They agreed that the majority would not take away the property of the white minority.
Ans. The three changes that were bought in the constitution of South Africa were as follows.
1. Discriminatory laws were repealed.
2. Ban on political parties and restrictions on the media were lifted.
3. After 28 years of imprisonment, Nelson Mandela walked out of the jail as a free man.
Ans. Constitution making is not unique to South Africa. Every country has diverse groups of people. Their relationship may not have been as bad as that between the whites and the blacks in South Africa. But all over the world people have differences of opinion and interests. Whether democratic or not, most countries in the world need to have these basic rules.