What is Democracy? Why Democracy?
Q35. How people elect their representatives in China?
Who appoints the President in China?
How President in China elected?
Ans. In China, elections are regularly held after every five years for electing the country’s parliament, called Quanguo Renmin Daibiao Dahui (National People’s Congress). The National People’s Congress has the power to appoint the President of the country.
Q36. What happened after passing the Legal Framework Order in Pakistan?
Ans. After passing this law, elections were held to the national and provincial assemblies. So Pakistan has had elections, elected representatives have some powers. But the final power rests with military officers and General Musharraf himself.
Q37. How can we say that the people in Mexico did not have any choice in the election?
Why Mexico is not a democratic country?
Why Mexico is not considered an example of democracy?
Ans. In Mexico, people seemed to really have a choice but in practice they had no choice. There was no way the ruling party (PRI) could be defeated, even if people were against it. These are not fair elections. Thus, Mexico is not considered an example of democracy.
Q38. Who was the president of Zimbabwe since independence?
Who has been the president of Zimbabwe since its independence?
Which party has ruled Zimbabwe since its independence?
Ans. Zimbabwe attained independence from White minority rule in 1980. Since then the country has been ruled by ZANU-PF, the party that led the freedom struggle. Its leader, Robert Mugabe, has been ruling the country since independence.
Q39. Why Pakistan under General Musharraf should not be called a democracy?
Why Pakistan under General Musharraf should not considered a democratic country even after having elections?
Ans. People may have elected their representatives to the national and provincial assemblies but those elected representatives are not really the rulers. They cannot take the final decisions. The power to take final decision rests with army officials and with General Musharraf, and none of them are elected by the people.
Q40. Which of these is not a good argument in favour of democracy? Why?
(a) People feel free and equal in a democracy.
(b) Democracies resolve conflict in a better way than others.
(c) Democratic government is more accountable to the people.
(d) Democracies are more prosperous than others.
Ans. (d) Democracies are more prosperous than others is not a good argument in favour of democracy as there are many countries which opted for democracy but are not prosperous whereas there are countries which are non-democratic but are prosperous. The prosperity of any country depends on many factors such correct policies of government, availability of natural resources etc.
Q41. Who are allowed to contest election in China?
Which members are allowed to contest the elections in China?
What does a candidate need before contesting elections in China?
Ans. Before contesting elections, a candidate needs the approval of the Chinese Communist Party. Only those who are members of the Chinese Communist Party or eight smaller parties allied to it were allowed to contest elections held in 2002-03. The government is always formed by the Communist Party.
Q42. A democracy enhances the dignity of citizens. How?
How democracy promotes dignity of the citizens?
Democracy enhances the dignity of citizens. Explain
Democracy enhances the dignity of citizens. Justify this statement.
How can you say that democracy enhances the dignity of citizens?
Ans. Democracy enhances the dignity of citizens. Democracy is based on the principle of political equality, on recognising that the poorest and the least educated has the same status as the rich and the educated. People are not subjects of a ruler, they are the rulers themselves. Even when they make mistakes, they are responsible for their conduct.
Q43. Compare the democratic system in China with that in Mexico.
1. In China the elections do not offer the people any serious choice.
1. In the Mexico people seemed to really have a choice but in practice they had no choice.
2. People have to choose the ruling party and the candidates approved by it.
2. There was no way the ruling party could be defeated, even if people were against it.
Q44. How democracy allows us to correct its own mistakes?
Ans. The advantage in a democracy is that such mistakes cannot be hidden for long. There is a space for public discussion on these mistakes. And there is a room for correction. Either the rulers have to change their decisions, or the rulers can be changed. This cannot happen in a non-democratic government.
Q45. How does democracy improve the quality of decision making?
Ans. Democracy is based on consultation and discussion. A democratic decision always involves many persons, discussions and meetings. When a number of people put their heads together, they are able to point out possible mistakes in any decision. This takes time. But there is a big advantage in taking time over important decisions. This reduces the chances of rash or irresponsible decisions. Thus democracy improves the quality of decision-making.
Q46. What amendments did Pervez Musharraf bring in the Constitution of Pakistan by issuing a ‘Legal Framework Order’ in August 2002?
Ans. In August 2002 he issued a ‘Legal Framework Order’ that amended the Constitution of Pakistan. According to this Order, the President can dismiss the national and provincial assemblies. The work of the civilian cabinet is supervised by a National Security Council which is dominated by military officers. After passing this law, elections were held to the national and provincial assemblies. So Pakistan has had elections, elected representatives have some powers. But the final power rests with military officers and General Musharraf himself.
Q47. Give examples of non-democratic countries.
What are some examples of non-democratic forms of government?
1. The army rulers of Myanmar are not elected by the people. Those who happen to be in control of the army become the rulers of the country. People have no say in this decision.
2. Dictators like Pinochet who ruled Chile are not elected by the people.
3. The kings of Nepal and Saudi Arabia rule not because the people have chosen them to do so but because they happen to be born into the royal family.