Topic outline

    • Electoral Politics

      Q25. Who was Chaudhary Devi Lal? 

      Ans. Chaudhary Devi Lal was an opposition leader who led a movement called ‘Nyaya Yudh’ (Struggle for Justice) and formed a new party, Lok Dal.


      Q26. What is election? 

      Ans. Election is a mechanism by which people can choose their representatives at regular intervals and change them if they wish to do so.


      Q27. What was the result of election in Haryana in 1987?


      What was the outcome of election in Haryana in 1987?

      Ans. Lok Dal and its partners won 76 out of 90 seats in the State Assembly. Lok Dal alone won 60 seats and thus had a clear majority in the Assembly.


      Q28. What does turnout figure indicate?

      Ans. People’s participation in election is usually measured by voter turnout figures. Turnout indicates the per cent of eligible voters who actually cast their vote.


      Q29. What is the time period of campaigning for election?


      What is the duration of election campaign in India?


      What is the total time period for an election campaign in India?

      Ans. In our country such campaigns take place for a two-week period between the announcement of the final list of candidates and the date of polling.


      Q30. Who used the slogan ‘Protect the Self-Respect of the Telugus’ in Andhra Pradesh Assembly elections in 1983?

      Ans. ‘Protect the Self-Respect of the Telugus’ was the slogan used by N. T. Rama Rao, the leader of the Telugu Desam Party in Andhra Pradesh Assembly elections in 1983.


      Q31. How is people's participation in election measured?

      Ans. People’s participation in election is usually measured by voter turnout figures. Turnout indicates the per cent of eligible voters who actually cast their vote.


      Q32. How do the candidates attract the public during election?

      Ans.  In election campaigns, political parties try to focus public attention on some big issues. They want to attract the public to that issue and get them to vote for their party on that basis.


      Q33. How are constituencies divided at the local level?

      Ans. In Panchayat and Municipal elections, each village or town is divided into several ‘wards’ that are like constituencies. Each ward elects one member of the village or the urban local body.


      Q34. What is Election Photo Identity Card?

      Ans. In the last few years a new system of Election Photo Identity Card [EPIC] has been introduced. The voters are required to carry this card when they go out to vote, so that no one can vote for someone else.


      Q35. Anyone who can be a voter can also become a candidate in elections, but there is one difference. Comment

      Ans. ‘Anyone who can be a voter can also become a candidate in elections.’ The only difference is that in order to be a candidate the minimum age is 25 years, while it is only 18 years for being a voter.


      Q36. Chinappa was convicted for torturing his wife for dowry. Satbir was held guilty of practicing untouchability. The court did not allow either of them to contest elections. Does this decision go against the principles of democratic elections?

      Ans. This decision does not go against the principles of democratic elections. Any person who is convicted for a crime has not right to contest the election.


      Q37. Elections are thus all about political competition. Give reasons.

      Ans. Elections are all about political competition because: 

      1. There is a competition among political parties.

      2. At the constituency level, there is competition among several candidates.


      Q38. List all the different election related activities mentioned in the chapter and arrange them in a time sequence, beginning with the first activity and ending with the last. Some of these activities are given below: releasing election manifestos; counting of votes; making of voters’ list; election campaign; declaration of election results; casting of votes; ordering of re-poll; announcing election schedule; filing nomination.

      Ans. Making of voters’ list  Announcing election schedule  Releasing election manifesto  Election campaign  Filing nomination  Casting of votes  Ordering of re-poll  Counting of votes  Declaration of election results.


      Q39. What was the promise made by Chaudhary Devi Lal to the people of Haryana?

      Ans. In the election campaign, Devi Lal said that if his party won the elections, his government would waive the loans of farmers and small businessmen. He promised that this would be the first action of his government.


      Q40. What is 'booth capturing'?

      Ans. Supporters or hired musclemen of party or a candidate gain physical control of a polling booth and cast false votes by threatening everyone or by preventing genuine voters from reaching the polling booth. This is termed as 'booth capturing'.


      Q41. How do general elections differ from by elections?


      Differentiate between general elections and by elections.


      General Election

      By - Election

      Elections are held in all constituencies at the same time, either on the same day or within a few days. This is called a general election.

      Sometimes election is held only for one constituency to fill the vacancy caused by death or resignation of a member. This is called a by-election.


      Q42. Why do most democracies have a representative government?


      In a democracy the majority of people rule through their elected representatives. Give reasons.

      Ans. A rule of the people is possible without any elections if all the people can sit together everyday and take all the decisions. But this is not possible in any large community. Nor is it possible for everyone to have the time and knowledge to take decisions on all matters. Therefore in most democracies people rule through their representatives.