Ans. The apartheid system was particularly oppressive for the blacks. They were forbidden from living in white areas. They could work in white areas only if they had a permit. Trains, buses, taxis, hotels, hospitals, schools and colleges, libraries, cinema halls, theatres, beaches, swimming pools, public toilets, were all separate for the whites and blacks. This was called segregation. They could not even visit the churches where the whites worshipped. Blacks could not form associations or protest against the terrible treatment.
Ans. As protests and struggles against apartheid had increased, the government realised that they could no longer keep the blacks under their rule through repression. The white regime changed its policies. Discriminatory laws were repealed. Ban on political parties and restrictions on the media were lifted. After 28 years of imprisonment, Nelson Mandela walked out of the jail as a free man. Finally, at the midnight of 26 April 1994, the new national flag of the Republic of South
Africa was unfurled marking the newly born democracy in the world.
Ans. (a) The expression ‘not wholly or in full measure’ in the first sentence was used by Nehru because he thought that the task they had undertaken was incomplete and it wasn’t possible to fulfill the pledges all at once but would be gradually fulfilled.
(b) The pledge that he wanted the makers of the Indian Constitution to take was to dedicate their lives to the service of India, Indians and humanity at large.
(c) He was referring to Mahatma Gandhi.
Ans. India’s Constitution was drawn up under very difficult circumstances.
1. The making of the constitution for a huge and diverse country like India was not an easy affair.
2. At that time the people of India were emerging from the status of subjects to that of citizens.
3. The country was born through a partition on the basis of religious differences. This was a traumatic experience for the people of India and Pakistan.
1. Since 1950, the blacks, coloured and Indians fought against the apartheid system. They launched protest marches and strikes.
2. The African National Congress (ANC) was the umbrella organisation that led the struggle against the policies of segregation. This included many workers’ unions and the Communist Party.
3. Many sensitive whites also joined the ANC to oppose apartheid and played a leading role in this struggle.
4. Several countries denounced apartheid as unjust and racist.
Ans. We should accept the Constitution made by Constituent Assembly more than fifty years ago because of the following reasons:
1. The Constitution does not reflect the views of its members alone; it expresses a broad consensus of its time.
2. The Constituent Assembly represented the people of India. There was no universal adult franchise at that time. So the Constituent Assembly could not have been chosen directly by all the people of India. It was elected mainly by the members of the existing Provincial Legislatures. This ensured a fair geographical share of members from all the regions of the country.
3. Constituent Assembly worked in a systematic, open and consensual manner.