Parts Of Speech
a sentence, words can be considered as the smallest components that have unique
meanings. We can categorize words into several types or parts of speech based
on their use and functions. An individual word can function as more than one
part of speech when used in different circumstances. Therefore, understanding
parts of speech is essential for determining the correct meaning of a word.
are eight parts of speech in the English language: noun, pronoun, verb,
adjective, adverb, preposition, conjunction, and interjection.
1. The Noun
part of a speech refers to words that are used to name persons, places, things,
events or ideas. All nouns are naming words.
Ravi, woman, boy (person); elephant, rabbit, tiger (animal); parrot, crow,
sparrow (bird); Delhi, Mumbai, India (place); computer, mobile, pencil (thing);
honesty, courage (idea), etc. Whatever we can see, feel or think and have names
are considered nouns.
lives in India.
uses an ink pen for writing.
is very flexible.
is looking very pretty.
Today is Harry’s
is shifting to Calcutta.
2. The Pronoun
part of a speech refers to a word that replaces a noun. They eliminate the need
for repetition. A pronoun is usually substituted for a specific noun, which is
called its antecedent.
I, you, he, she, we, ours, mine, yours, his, her, him, hers, they, them,
theirs, it, etc.
Jia is a very determined child. She always focuses on her goal.
The largest share is mine.
The teacher gave all of them punishment.
Tina gave her
bicycle to Rina.
is bigger than ours.
3. The Adjective
part of a speech refers to a word that modifies, describes or gives more
information about a noun or pronoun. Adjectives are describing
words and normally come before the nouns.
fast, quiet, useful, much, pretty, old, blue, smart, beautiful, big, sad, red,
young, fun, crazy, three etc.
boy had a blue umbrella.
student received "A" grade.
I have two
Wow! That cake is delicious.
She is a young
Tom is a wise
4. The Verb
part of a speech refers to a word that tells us what the subject does, or what
happens to it, or what state it is in, or what possesses.
am, is, was, are, were, have, has, had, do, does, did, be, am, is, are, was,
were, being, been, should, could, will, would, might, can, may, must, shall,
ought (to), go, speak, run, eat, play, live, walk, like etc.
always ready for any disaster.
Ria is charming.
I like vanilla
We had a
that she is right.
5. The Adverb
part of a speech refers to a word that modifies a verb, an adjective or another
adverb. Adverbs tell us how, when, where, how often and to what degree (extent)
something happens or takes place. Adverbs often end in -ly.
quickly, extremely, carefully, well, slowly, quietly, very, always, never, too,
tomorrow, here etc.
He ate his pie quickly.
The teacher carefully
corrected the exam copy.
Ravi was extremely
excited about his adventure camp.
She danced gracefully.
We are going tomorrow.
He looked everywhere
for his sunglasses.
6. The Preposition
part of a speech refers to a word or a group of words that shows
its relation with another noun or pronoun or a verb. Therefore it can also be
called as a ‘relation’ word and comes before a noun or a pronoun in a sentence.
are used to indicate time, place, direction or relationship.
on, into, at, by, upon, across, beside, between, of, out of, for, above, below,
throughout, outside, before, near etc.
Rita’s act is lying
under the bed.
She left her purse on
He sat on
Let's go into
They will gather at
5 o’ clock in the evening.
7. The Conjunction (Connectors or Linking
part of a speech refers to a word that joins two or more words, phrases, or
clauses. . There are three kinds of conjunctions:
Coordinating Conjunctions: These
are the words that join words, phrases, and clauses of equal grammatical
importance in the sentence. Example: and, but, or, so, nor, for, yet.
Correlative Conjunctions: These
are the words that join equally important ideas, but they work in pairs. Example:
either...or, both...and, not only...but also, neither…nor, whether…or,
Subordinating Conjunctions: These
are the words that join words, phrases, and clauses that are not equal. Example:
because, although, while, since, after, as, as if, before, even if, even
though, if, so that, though, unless, until, when, whenever, where, wherever,
He wants to go, but
She is honest and
Would you like a cup of tea or a coffee?
He didn't clear the test because he was not prepared.
We were thirsty, so
we ordered cold drinks.
I was exhausted but
I still finished my assignment.
8. The Interjection
part of a speech refers to a word or phrase that states strong, sudden
emotions. It expresses strong feelings of joy, sadness, surprise,
appreciation, condemnation, etc. Since interjections are
commonly used to convey strong emotions, they are usually followed by an
exclamation mark but in case of mild interjections we place comma after the
Alas!, Oh!, Bravo!, Fantastic!, Gorgeous!, Wow!, Hurrah!, Pooh!, Pshaw!, Fie!,
is a holiday.
we’re late for the party.
I’m late for my office.
cleared my IIT entrance exam.
Articles and determiners like a, an, the, some, any, etc. are also adjectives
but they are studied separately due to their importance in modifying the
meaning of the word they qualify.
Note 2: Same Word – Several Parts of Speech
are words that can be used in more than one way. This implies that a word can
function as several different parts of speech. The function of a word in a
sentence decides to which part of speech it belongs.
the highlighted words in the following sentences.
She like to watch plays
on T.V. (noun)
cricket during his vacation. (verb)
I would like a drink.
too much alcohol. (verb)
Rima bought a new sofa
for her house. (noun)
She is planning to buy a sofa bed for her living room. (adjective)