Parts of a plant
depend on nature for all our basic need. Plants are one of big groups of nature. They are autotrophic which means
they can make their own food. We obtain many things from plants such as
cereals, pulses, vegetables, fruits, wood, fibre, rubber, gum, tea, coffee etc.
includes trees, herbs, bushes, grasses, vines, ferns, mosses, and green algae.
The scientific study of plants is known as botany. Fungi and non-green
algae are not considered as plants. Basic parts of plants are roots, stems,
leaves, flowers, fruits, and seeds. Each part of a plant has a very important
The Root System-
Root is the underground part of the plants body and grows towards the force of
gravity. It fixes the plant within the soil and absorbs water and mineral
nutrients from the soil. It stores excess food.
Tap Roots- It consists of one
main root growing downwards from which lateral roots develop which may
initially grow horizontally then turn downward. Taproots are also important
adaptations for searching for water and minerals from deep within the soil.
Examples: sugar beet or carrot etc.
It consists of a dense mass of slender roots that arise from the stem. The
roots grow downward and outward from the stem, branching repeatedly to form a mass
of fine roots.
Example: lilies, grasses, palm etc.
some plants the roots are modified to do special tasks. They are called Modified Roots.
of them are:-
Storage roots- These consist of a thickened roots
due to the accumulation of high-energy storage compounds, usually starch.
Example: carrot, sweet potato, cassava, raddish etc.
Aerial roots- These fibrous roots remain aerial,
i.e. they do not enter the soil. It performs special functions such as water
retention, photosynthesis, and support.
Example: Old banyan trees have aerial roots hanging
down. It provides support to the tree.
Aquatic Roots - These are specialized roots in some
plants that grow in watery places and which function mainly for water and
nutrient absorption. Its root system consists of long fibrous roots.
Example: water lily
The Shoot System-
It is the aerial part of the plant body and enables a plant to grow taller to
gain access to energy-giving light, and helps plant to prepare food. It is
composed of erect stems on which are attached leaves, flowers, branches and
buds. Leaves are attached to the stem at regions called nodes.
Stem- It supports the
upper parts of plants. It carries the water and nutrients needed for plants to
grow from roots to leaves and food produced by the leaves to other part of
plants. Stems also store food for the plant.
stems are located above ground, but there are modified stems that can be found either above or below
Tendrils-In various climbing plants, such as the grapes,
some parts of stems are modified into coil like structures called tendrils.
They are weak, so they take the support of other structures to help the plants
to climb up and grow.
Runners or stolons - Stems that grow in a
creeping fashion horizontally above the surface of the soil are called runners,
or stolons. Nodes of these stem if touches soil, give rise to new plant. Example –water melon, pumpkin etc.
Water storing stem-Some cacti and a few
other kinds of plants have stems that look like leaves. They are green and thus
manufacture and store food.
Underground modified stem- potato, garlic, onion
and ginger are example of underground stem.
Leaves -These are the
parts of the plant where food is made by the process of photosynthesis. That’s
why leaves are called the food making factories of green plants. Chlorophyll
(green pigment) present in the leaves uses the energy in sunlight to turn water
(H2O) and carbon dioxide gas (CO2) into sugar and oxygen
gas (O2). Leaves are of different shapes and sizes. The outer surface of the leaf has a waxy coating
which protects the leaf. The flat surface of the leaf is called leaf blade
or lamina. It has veins running across within the leaf. Tiny opening on the
surface of the leaves called stomata helps in the exchange of gases.
are modified as spines in cactus for protection. Due to the scarcity of water
in desert, in some plants leaves are modified to form spines.
Tendrils-They are spring like structure that is
coiled spirally. They are leaves modified for support and when they come in
contact with any structure, they coil around that support. Example:-pea
In plants like onion, the leaves are modified as storage organs. These leaves protect stem at
the base of the onion. Example: Onions.
Needle Leaves-The most modification in leaves is
related to the need of water by the plant. Needle like leaf modification is
seen in plants like pines, firs etc.
fly trap plants are designed to capture and digest insects between the folds of
their specialized leaves.
is a plant with flower-like spring leaves near its flowers.
Flowers are the most attractive part of a plant. Each flower types have a different
physical structure, color and scent from those of other flower type plants.
Petals and the flowers smell attract insects and bees to pollinate the
flower. After pollination, the petals
fall off and seeds develop in the part of a flower called the ovary. The ovary itself usually becomes the fruit.
is the process by which pollen is transferred from the anther to the stigma of
the plant. Some of the agents of pollination are insects, wind, birds, mammals,
Petals - The parts of a flower that are often
brightly colored or unusually shaped to attract pollinators. They are the most
attractive part of the plant.
–These are small and green in color composing the outermost part of a flower.
It encloses and protects the bud and may remain after the fruit forms.
Pistils - The pistil usually is based in the
center of the flower and is consist of three parts: the stigma, style, and
Stigma - It is the waxy, sticky bulb in the
center of flowers and is the part which receives pollen.
Style - It is a long, slender stalk that
connects the stigma and the ovary.
Ovary- The ovary is located at the bottom
of the style
Stamen - It is the pollen-producing part of
a flower is consist of two parts: Anthers and Filament
Anthers – It is pollen producing structure.
These are generally yellow in color.
Filament – It is a thread like structure
which holds anthers.
Fruit and Seed
The fruit is a fleshy or dry ripened (mature) ovary of a plant,
enclosing the seed or seeds. Most plants grow from seeds. A seed (mature ovule) is a miniature plant with a protective outer
covering called the seed coat, usually with some stored food. Seeds are dispersed either by wind, water or animals. On getting
air, water and sunlight, seed grow into baby plant. Most plants grow in the
ground, with stems above, and roots below.
Seeds dispersal means movement of seeds from parent plant to
another place. Dispersal of seeds is stops overcrowding and to create new
Some seeds are scattered by wind
are usually enclosed in wing-like husks or fluffy coverings that help
them to fly away long distance from the parent plant. For example, Dandelion seeds develop very
light and fluffy parachute-like structures. These help the seeds to float in
the wind and delay their fall to the ground.
Aquatic plant and plants that grow beside water have buoyant,
waterproof coverings that allow them to float and disperse their seeds by
Fruits which float such as those of the water lily and the coconut
palm are carried by water and can travel for long distance.
By Animal and Humans
Seeds with sticky hairs, bristles, hook, or barbs are transported
by sticking to the fur of animals or on the clothing of human beings and are
carried long distance. Birds and other animals eat the fleshy fruits and
discard the seeds or they may eat both but the seeds are not digested and are
passed out as waste, and are ready to grow.
By Explosion of fruit
Some plants distribute their seeds by ejecting them with force when
they are dried in the sun so that they fall well away from the parent plant.
This is explosive dispersal. An example of this is plants which belong to the
Pea Family .They produce seed pods which dry in the sun and suddenly split into
two halves and disperse their seed.
Reproduction without seeds
Reproduction is the production of new individuals or offspring in
plants. Not all new plant grows from a seed. There are some plants that employ
vegetative propagation and grow new plants. Vegetative propagation is a process
by which new organisms arise without production of seeds or spores. In this
process only one plant is involved and the offspring (new plant) is genetically
identical to the parent. New plants grow
from parts of the parent plant.
Many parts of plant are used for
the asexual reproduction
Stems- Aerial weak stems when touches
the ground, give of adventitious roots and if it detach from the parent plant, newly
formed roots develops into an independent plant ex- strawberry, grass. Other
examples of stem propagation are ginger, banana, turmeric etc.
Leaves-In some plant, buds develops on
leaf margins. These buds remain dormant till leaf remain attached with plant
but develop into new plant when fall off from the plant and come in the contact
of soil. Ex -Bryophyllum
Roots- The roots of some plants develop
adventitious buds on them. Example: guava, dahlia & sweet potato. These
buds sprout under suitable conditions and when detached from the parent plant
turns into new plant.