play very important role on earth. They provide food and oxygen to all other
living things. Plants are seen almost everywhere. They grow on land, on
mountains, in deserts and under sea. We know plants grow mostly from seeds when
they get enough water, sunlight and air.
out this activity, take a small plastic glass and place some wet cotton in it.
Put some moong on it. Keep the cotton wet but don’t add much water. Place the
glass in warm place. Leave it for few days. What do
you observe? Do you see something coming out of the seeds?
can see a tiny plant coming out from seed. This young plant developing out from
seed is called seedling. A typical seedling has 3 main parts: root,
shoot and leaves. Sprouting of seedling from a seed is called germination.
Parts of Plants
System- Root is the underground part of the plants body and
grows towards the force of gravity. It fixes the plant within the soil and
absorbs water and mineral nutrients from the soil. It stores excess food.
It consists of one main long thick root growing downwards from which many
thinner roots develop. Taproot goes deep into the soil for searching for water
and minerals. Examples: sugar beet or
carrot, bean, tea, peepal etc. have tap root.
Fibrous Roots- In case of fibrous root there is no
main root. It consists of a dense equal size roots that arise from the stem.
The roots grow downward and outward from the stem, branching repeatedly to form
a mass of fine roots. Fibrous root does go very deep in the soil. Example: lilies, grasses, wheat, rice, palm
etc. have fibrous root.
Function of roots
Roots attach the plant body to the ground.
It provides support to the plant and helps in holding the plant firmly in the
Root hairs of the plant absorb water and mineral
from the soil and pass it to the stem.
Some roots like carrot, radish etc. store
Root bind the soil which otherwise may be
blown away by wind or washed away by water. Root prevents soil erosion.
System- It is the aerial part of the plant body and enables a
plant to grow taller to gain access to energy-giving light, and helps plant to
prepare food. It is composed of erect stems on which are attached leaves,
flowers, branches and buds. Leaves are attached to the stem at regions called
supports the upper parts of plants. It carries the water and nutrients needed
for plants to grow from roots to leaves and food produced by the leaves to
other part of plants. Big trees like neem, mango, peepal etc. have strong,
thick and woody stem. Such stem is called trunk. Some plant have thick but soft
stem, example banana. Some plants have weak, soft and green stem as in case of
climbers and creepers, example watermelon, money plant etc.
Functions of stem
Stem provide support to the plant above the
ground. It bears branches, leaves, buds, flowers and fruits.
Stem transport water and minerals from root
to other parts of the plants. It also transport food prepared by the leaves to
different part of the plants.
Some underground stem stores food such as
sugarcane, potato, ginger etc.
are of different shapes and sizes. The
outer surface of the leaf has a waxy coating which protects the leaf. The flat
surface of the leaf is called leaf blade or lamina. It has veins running across
within the leaf. Tiny opening on the surface of the leaves called stomata helps
in the exchange of gases. Stomata can be seen only under microscope.
Function of Leaves
These are the parts of the plant where food
is made by the process of photosynthesis. That’s why leaves are called the food
making factories of green plants. Chlorophyll (green pigment) present in the
leaves uses the energy in sunlight to turn water (H2O) and carbon
dioxide gas (CO2) into sugar and oxygen gas (O2).
Leaves gives out oxygen in the process of
photosynthesis. All living beings need oxygen to live.
Some leaves store food in them such as
mint, cabbage etc.
Flowers are the most attractive part of a
plant. Each flower types have a different physical structure, color and scent
from those of other flower type plants. Buds of the plants grows into flower
and flower finally becomes fruit enclosing the seed or seeds. Some fruits have
one seed such as mango and cherry. Some fruits have many seeds such as papaya
Uses of flower
Many flowers such as rose and jasmine are
used for making perfumes.
flowers edible such as cauliflower, broccoli and banana.
spices are obtained from flower such as saffron or kesar from crocus flower and
cloves is dried flower.
are used for decoration on different occasions and for preparing bouquets,
garlands and rangoli.