are important part of nature. They can live on land and in water. Plants are very useful to us and we get many things from plant such as
food, wood, paper etc.
Most of our food that we eat comes from plants for
example -fruits, vegetables, cereals, pulses etc. We eat roots, leaves, stems,
flowers and fruits of plants.
have different parts. Each part serves different functions that help the plant
Main parts of plants:-
lies below the surface of the soil and hold the plant firmly in place. Its main
function is to absorb water and nutrients for the plant. It store food and
nutrients and provide support to the plant. Roots of many
plants are eaten as food such as beetroot, radish, carrot etc.
can be green or brown and can be thin or thick. It holds the plant upright. It carries water and minerals from the roots to the leaves and takes
the food back down the plant to be distributed and stored. It supports the branches,
leaves, flowers and fruits and connects them with the roots. Stems of many
plants are eaten as food such as potato, ginger etc.
a flattened structure of plant which is typically green and blade-like, that is
attached to a stem. Leaves are of different shapes, sizes and texture. Some
leaves are wide and hairy whereas some leaves are small and shaped like
needles. Green leaves prepare food for plant through the process of
photosynthesis that’s why leaves are called food factory of plants. In the
process of photosynthesis leaf prepare food material in the presence of
sunlight, water, carbon dioxide and green pigment called chlorophyll present in
the leaf. There are large number of minute openings present on the leaves,
called stomata, through which gaseous exchange takes place between the
atmosphere and the plant body. Non green plants such as mushroom do not prepare
their food. Leaves of many plants are eaten as food such as spinach, lettuce,
are the most attractive part of a plant. Each flower types have a different
physical structure, colour and scent from those of other flower type plants.
Petals and the flowers smell attract insects and bees to pollinate the flower. Sweet smelling
flowers petals are used for making perfumes. Flowers are widely used for
decoration and for making garlands. Some of the common flowers are lotus, rose,
marigold, jasmine, sunflower, hibiscus etc. Flowers that
we eat are broccoli and cauliflower.
fruit is a fleshy or dry ripened part of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds. Some of the fruits that we eat are orange, mango, apple, grapes, etc.
The hard part inside the fruit is called seed.
Most plants grow from seeds. Some fruit seeds we eat are pomegranate, banana,
fig, guava, kiwi, grapes etc. We do not eat seed of apple, chikoo and many
Plants are living organism
and need food for growth. Plants prepare their own food. The necessary
ingredients plants need to make their food are:-
Sunlight – Plants
leaves absorb sunlight as required by the plant. Some plants need more sunlight
and some need less. There are plants that need shade as they require very
limited amount of sunlight.
Sufficient water – Adequate water is required for the healthy growth of plants. Too much
or too little water will harm the plants and plant may die. Plant absorbs water
by roots. The amount of water needed varies between all types of plants.
Adequate air and temperature – Plants take in carbon dioxide through
leaves and gives out oxygen in the process of photosynthesis. The plants should
be around little wind to help sustain their structural components.
Rich soil - Plants derive nutrients or
minerals that they need from the soil where they are planted. These minerals
are taken in by the roots.
Space – Plants needs sufficient
space to grow and expand their roots to bind them to the ground. Overcrowded plants are more
likely to die.
Types of Plant