Q31. In what ways is a permanent and regular job different from
a casual job? Discuss.
Ans. Permanent and regular job – In Permanent
and regular job employee get a regular salary every month. Apart from salary,
also gets other benefits such as savings for old age, holidays, medical
facilities for their family etc.
- There is no job security or protection in casual job. If workers complain
about their pay or working conditions they are asked to leave. They
are paid less and expected to work for very long hours.
Q32. What work does Sudha do?
Ans. Sudha is a marketing manager in a company which
manufactures biscuits. She supervises the work of 50 salespersons who travel to
different parts of the city. They get orders from shopkeepers
and collect payments from them. She has divided the city into six regions and
once a week she meets the salespersons of each region. She checks their
progress report and discusses problems they face. She has to plan the sales in
the entire city and often has to work late and travel to different places.
Q33. What are the benefits of a permanent job?
People in permanent jobs have following benefits:
They get regular salary every month.
They can expect their job to continue for a
long period of time.
They get off on Sundays and national
holidays. They also gets some days as annual leave.
A part of their salary is kept in a fund
with the government. They will earn interest on these savings.
When they retire from their job they will get this money.
Q34. Talk to a shop owner in a market and find out how he plans
Have there been any changes in his business in the past twenty
Ans. He owns a garment shop in a busy market. He does
financial planning and budgeting at the end of each month. He decides about the
vendor to be contacted and types of garments to be ordered. He keeps in mind
people’s preference and change in fashion while placing an order.
his business has been changed a lot with time. Previously, there were only 2-3
shops in the area. And therefore there was not much competition. Now, there are
many shops in the area and customers are more aware. Now, he has to be more
Q35. Why did Harpreet and Vandana start a showroom? What do they
have to do to run the showroom?
These days people prefer to buy readymade clothes, rather than have them
stitched. The trend these days is for readymade garments. Therefore Harpreet
and Vandana started a showroom.
their showroom, they buy things from different places. They buy most of the
materials from Mumbai, Ahmedabad, Ludhiana and Tripura. Some materials also
come from Noida and Gurgaon, towns near Delhi. They get some dress items from
foreign countries, too. There are several things they need to do to run this
showroom properly. They advertise in various newspapers, cinema theatres,
television and radio channels.
Q36. Write a note on the living conditions of workers who come
to the labour Chowk.
workers that we find at the labour chowk cannot afford permanent accommodation
and so sleep on pavements near the chowk, or they pay
6 a night for a bed at a nearby night shelter run by the Municipal Corporation.
To compensate for the lack of security, local tea and cigarette shops function
as banks, moneylenders and safety lockers, all rolled into one. Most workers
leave their tools at these shops for the night for safekeeping, and pass on any
extra money to them. The shopkeepers keep the money safely and also offer loans
to labourers in need. Thus, the living conditions of the workers
are very poor and depressing.