Empire and Kingdoms
Q23. Write the meaning of kumar-amatya
– an important minister
sandhi-vigrahika – a minister of war and
Q24. Who was Harishena?
was a poet, a maha-danda-nayaka, a kumar-amatya and a sandhi-vigrahika.
Q25. Write a note on rulers of
There were twelve rulers in dakshinapatha. They surrendered to Samudragupta
after being defeated and he then allowed them to rule again.
Q26. Who was the first ruler of
Gupta Dynasty who adopted the grand title of maharaj-adhiraja?
was the first ruler of the Gupta dynasty to adopt the grand title of
Q27. What is Abhijana Shakuntalam?
Shakuntalam is the most famous play of Kalidasa. It is the story of the love
between a king named Dushyanta and a young woman named Shakuntala.
Q28. How did poet praise the king
poet praised the king in glowing terms — as a warrior, as a king who won
victories in battle, who was learned and the best of poets. He is also described
as equal to the gods.
Q29. How did the Sabha function in
was an assembly of brahmin land owners and this assembly functioned through
subcommittees, which looked after irrigation, agricultural operations, making
roads, local temples, etc.
Q30. How do we come to know about
can find out about Harshavardhana from:
his biography , the Harshacharita written
by his court poet, Banabhatta
a detailed account left by Xuan Zang, who
spent a lot of time at Harsha’s court.
Q31. What changes do you find in the army at this time?
kings maintained a well-organised army. Besides, there were military leaders who
provided the king with troops whenever he needed them. They were not paid regular
salaries. Instead, some of them received grants of land. They collected revenue
from the land and used this to maintain soldiers and horses, and provide
equipment for warfare.
Q32. What do you know about Chalukyas
was one of the most important ruling dynasties in south India. Chalukyas was
centred around the Raichur Doab, between the rivers Krishna and Tungabhadra. Aihole,
the capital of the Chalukyas, was an important trading centre. It developed as
a religious centre, with a number of temples.
Q33. What were the new
administrative arrangements during this period?
were some new developments. Kings adopted a number of steps to win the support
of men who were powerful, either economically, or socially, or because of their
political and military strength. For instance:
Some important administrative posts were made
Sometimes, one person held many offices.
Besides, important men probably had a say
in local administration.
Q34. Write a note on Pulakeshin II.
best-known Chalukya ruler was Pulakeshin II. We know about him from a
prashasti, composed by his court poet Ravikirti. This tells us about his ancestors,
who are traced back through four generations from father to son. Pulakeshin evidently
got the kingdom from his uncle. According to Ravikirti, he
led expeditions along both the west and the east coasts. Besides, he checked
the advance of Harsha.
Q35. Write a short note on
was not the eldest son of his father, but became king of Thanesar after both
his father and elder brother died. His brother-in-law was the ruler of Kanauj
and he was killed by the ruler of Bengal. Harsha took over the kingdom of Kanauj,
and then led an army against the ruler of Bengal. Although he was successful in
the east, and conquered both Magadha and Bengal, he was not as successful
elsewhere. He tried to cross the Narmada to march into the Deccan,
but was stopped by a ruler belonging to the Chalukya dynasty, Pulakeshin II.
Q36. Write about assemblies in the southern
inscriptions of the Pallavas mention a number of local assemblies. These
included the sabha, which was an assembly of brahmin land owners. This
assembly functioned through subcommittees, which looked after irrigation, agricultural
operations, making roads, local temples, etc. The ur was a village assembly
found in areas where the land owners were not brahmins. And the nagaram was an
organisation of merchants. It is likely that these assemblies were controlled by
rich and powerful landowners and merchants. Many of these local assemblies
continued to function for centuries.