Questions and Ideas
Q21. When were the teachings of Mahavira written for the first
teachings of Mahavira were written about 1500 years ago
the first time.
Q22. How tanha or constant craving could be removed?
craving could be removed by following moderation in everything.
Q23. Who was Gargi?
was the woman Upanishadic thinker who was famous for her learning, and
participated in debates held in royal courts.
Q24. Explain the word ‘Karma’ as described by Buddha.
According to Buddha, the results of our actions (called karma), whether good or
bad, affect us both in this life and the next.
Q25. Explain the term ‘Upanishad’.
Upanishad literally means ‘approaching and sitting near’ and the texts contain
conversations between teachers and students.
Q26. How did Panini prepare grammar for Sanskrit?
arranged the vowels and the consonants in a special order, and then used these
to create formulae like those found in Algebra.
Q27. What were the questions that Upanishadic thinkers wanted to
of the thinkers wanted to know about life after death, others wanted to know
why sacrifices should be performed.
Q28. Name the book in which the rules made for the Buddhist
sangha were written?
rules made for the Buddhist sangha were written down in a book called the
Q29. Do you think it would have been easy for slaves to join the
sangha? Give reasons for your answer.
No, it would have not been easy for slaves to join the sangha because they had
to take the permission of their masters.
Q30. Who believed that the results of our actions (called karma),
whether good or bad, affect us both in this life and the next.
believed that the results of our actions (called karma), whether good or bad,
affect us both in this life and the next.
Q31. What does tanha mean?
Sometimes, even if we get what we want, we are not satisfied, and want even
more (or want other things). The Buddha described this as thirst or tanha.
Q32. Who are the ancestors of the
Zoroastrians migrated from Iran and settled down in the coastal towns of
Gujarat and Maharashtra. They were the ancestors of today’s Parsis.
Q33. What does vihara mean?
supporters of the monks and nuns, and they themselves, felt the need for more
permanent shelters and so monasteries were built. These were known as viharas.
Q34. What is atman?
thinkers felt that there was something permanent in the universe that would
last even after death. They described this as the atman or the individual soul
and the brahman or the universal soul.
Q35. Why do you think Anagha’s mother wanted her to know the story
of the Buddha?
mother wanted her to know the story of the Buddha because she was going on a
school trip to Varanasi (in Uttar Pradesh) and Sarnath near Varanasi is the
place where Buddha taught for the first time.
Q36. What did Buddha do after he attained enlightenment?
enlightenment, he was known as the Buddha or the Wise One. He then went to Sarnath,
near Varanasi, where he taught for the first time. He spent the rest of his
life travelling on foot, going from place to place, teaching people, till he
passed away at Kusinara.
Q37. Write a note on spread of Jainism.
was supported mainly by traders. Farmers, who had to kill insects to protect
their crops, found it more difficult to follow the rules. Over
hundreds of years, Jainism spread to different parts of north India, and to
Gujarat, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka.