Kings and an Early Republic
Q20. Why Shudras were excluded from every ritual?
Shudras were excluded from every ritual because according to priests contact
with these groups was polluting.
Q21. Name the system of government in Vajji.
with its capital at Vaishali (Bihar), was under a different form of government,
known as gana or sangha.
Q22. Name some Janapadas.
Purana Qila in Delhi, Hastinapur near Meerut (Uttar Pradesh), and Atranjikhera,
near Etah (Uttar Pradesh)
Q23. How were cities of mahajanapadas fortified?
The cities of mahajanapadas were fortified by building huge walls of wood,
brick or stone around them.
Q24. What was the content of Later Vedic books?
Vedic books were composed by priests, and described how rituals were
to be performed. They also contained rules about society.
Q25. What is ‘Bhaga’?
Taxes on crops were the most important. Usually, the tax was fixed at 1/6th of
what was produced. This was known as bhaga or a share.
Q26. How some men came to be recognized
Ans. Some men by performing big sacrifices, like, the
Ashvamedha Yajna or horse sacrifice, came to
be recognised as rajas.
Q27. Which two powerful rulers of Magadha used all possible means
to conquer other janapadas?
Magadha had two very powerful rulers, Bimbisara and Ajatasattu, who used all
possible means to conquer other janapadas.
Q28. Which category of people was
excluded from many rituals in the Later Vedic Period?
Some people such as those who were regarded as shudras by the priests were
excluded from many rituals.
Q29. When was the first democratic government formed?
2500 years ago, the people of Athens set up a form of government, which was
called a democracy, which lasted for about 200 years.
Q30. How were forests useful for the people of Magadha?
of Magadha were forested. Elephants, which lived in the forest, could be captured
and trained for the army. Forests also provided wood for building houses, carts
Q31. What were the two major changes that took place in
agriculture during the Later Vedic Period?
There were two major changes in agriculture around this time. One was the
growing use of iron ploughshares. Second, people began
Q32. When Alexander wanted to march further eastwards, his
soldiers refused. Why?
wanted to march further eastwards but his soldiers refused because they were
scared, as they had heard that the rulers of India had vast armies of foot
soldiers, chariots and elephants.
Q33. Why was an iron plough considered better than that of wood?
Iron plough considered better than that of wood because iron is hard and strong
than wood and thus heavy, clayey soil could be turned over better than with a wooden
Q34. Name the four varnas that are described in the Vedas.
Ans. Four varnas
Q35. Why books such as Samaveda, Yajurveda and Atharvaveda, as
well as other books are often called later Vedic?
Ans. These books are often called later Vedic,
because they were composed after the Rigveda. These were composed by priests,
and described how rituals were to be performed. They also contained rules about