the Earliest Cities
Q30. Write short note on Lothal.
The city of Lothal stood beside a tributary
of the Sabarmati, in Gujarat, close to the Gulf of Khambat.
It was situated near areas where raw
materials such as semi-precious stones were easily available.
This was an important centre for making
objects out of stone, shell and metal.
There was also a store house in the city.
Many seals and sealings (the impression of seals on clay) were found in this
Q31. Where the Harappans probably got copper, tin, gold, silver
and precious stones from?
used raw materials were available locally; many items such as copper, tin, gold,
silver and precious stones had to be brought from distant places. The Harappans
probably got copper from present-day Rajasthan, and even from Oman in West
have been brought from present-day Afghanistan and Iran. Gold
could have come all the way from present-day Karnataka, and precious stones
from present-day Gujarat, Iran and Afghanistan.
Q32. Explain why metals, writing, wheel and plough were
considered important for the Harappans?
Metals, writing, the wheel and the plough were important for the Harappans in
were used for making various tools, utensils, jewelry and seals.
was useful for maintaining the records; related to trade and for various other
was used in carts to ferry people and goods. Wheel was also used as potter’s
was used for tilling the land so that farming could be done.
Q33. When and how Harappa civilization was discovered?
Nearly a hundred and fifty years ago, when railway lines were being laid down
for the first time in the Punjab, engineers stumbled upon the site of Harappa
in present-day Pakistan. To them, it seemed like a mound that was a rich source
of ready made, high quality bricks. So they carried off thousands of bricks
from the walls of the old buildings of the city to build railway lines. Many buildings
were completely destroyed. Then, about eighty years ago, archaeologists found
the site, and realised that this was one of the oldest cities in the subcontinent.
Q34. What was special about “Great Bath” of Mohenjodaro?
In Mohenjodaro, a very special tank, which
archaeologists call the Great Bath, was built in this area.
This was lined with bricks, coated with
plaster, and made water-tight with a layer of natural tar.
There were steps leading down to it from
two sides, while there were rooms on all sides.
Water was probably brought in from a well,
and drained out after use.
Perhaps important people took a dip in this
tank on special occasions.
Q35. Write about the houses, drains and streets of Harappan
Houses, drains and streets of Harappan cities
Generally, houses were either one or two
storeys high, with rooms built around a courtyard.
Most houses had a separate bathing area,
and some had wells to supply water.
Many of these cities had covered drains.
drain had a gentle slope so that water could flow through it.
Drains in houses were connected to those on
the streets and smaller drains led into bigger ones.
As the drains were covered, inspection
holes were provided at intervals to clean them.
Q36. The Harappans can be called great architects and engineers.
Do you agree? Give reasons in support of your argument.
The Harappans can be called great architects and engineers because
They built massive walls and gateways
surrounding the city area to protect the city from flood and control illegal
Most of these roads and streets were paved
with fire brunt bricks. The main streets intersected at right angles, dividing
the city into squares or rectangular blocks each of which was divided length
wise and cross wise by lanes.
The drainage system was excellent. Drains
were covered and had a gentle slope so that water could flow through it.
holes were provided at intervals to clean them.
three — houses, drains and streets — were probably planned and built at the
Q37. How the life of farmers and herders who supplied food to
the Harappan cities was different from that of the farmers and herders?
Following are the difference:
Harappan farmers and herders used wooden
plough to dig the earth for turning the soil and planting seeds. Earlier
farmers and herders used mortars and pestle for grinding grains.
Harappan farmers and herders used some form
of irrigation. Water was stored and supplied to the fields
when the plants were growing. Earlier farmers and herders did not
Harappan farmers stored grains in
well-built granaries. Earlier farmers stored grains in clay pots, basket etc.
Harappan farmers and herders lived in the
countryside. There were no cities in earlier times.
Q38. What was special about Harappan cities?
Special feature about Harappan cities
Many of these cities were divided into two
or more parts. Usually, the part to the west was smaller but higher and is
called the citadel. Generally, the part to the east was larger but lower and is
called the lower town.
Very often walls of baked brick were built
around each part. The bricks were laid in an interlocking pattern and that made
the walls strong.
In some cities, special buildings were
constructed on the citadel. For example, in Mohenjodaro, a very
special tank called the Great Bath, was built in this area.
Other cities, such as Kalibangan and Lothal
had fire altars, where sacrifices may have been performed.